Sanskrit & Sánscrito (Magyar-Főoldal)

JavaScript letiltva! Ellenőrizd ezt a linket!


 Tanulj Szanszkritul - Táblázatok

Táblázat, mely a Szanszkrit magánhangzók és mássalhangzók teljes kombinációját tartalmazza


 Introduction

Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka again. In this document I will not show you all possible combinations of "cons. + vowel, r + cons.", etc. (except when necessary). Not at all. I will show you all usual combinations of "cons. + vowel, r + cons.", etc. For example, this combination is possible: ya + ṛ = + = यृ (yṛ), but though possible it is not usual. In fact, I have not seen that combination ever in practice. That is why you will see some blank cells in the tables every time that a combination is not usual even though possible. Another common example of this is ḷ vowel. It is possible to form many combinations of cons. + ḷ, but the only combination which is usually seen is kḷ (कॢ).

This document should be used as a complement to Writing document. The present tables are very important every time you want to verify if you are writing well in Sanskrit. In fact, some combinations such as "r + cons. + ṁ (Anusvāra)" are difficult to learn (e.g. r + ka + ṁ = र् + + Anusvāra = र्कं (rkaṁ), and the student generally needs a hand. For that reason, I have strived to show you in simple tables every usual combination of cons. + vowel, r + cons. and the like. Moreover, note that I follow the Sanskrit alphabetical order in the tables. Therefore, have the Alphabet at hand (print it if you can).

Let us get down to work!

top


 Cons. + a

As the Sanskrit alphabet is syllabic and each of the consonants already includes "a", this table coincides with the Sanskrit alphabet you may find in Alphabet (English) as far as consonants is concerned, except "ṅa" and "ña" which are not usually seen.

Gutturals ka kha ga gha - -
Palatals ca cha ja jha - -
Cerebrals ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa
Dentals ta tha da dha na
Labials pa pha ba bha ma
Semivowels ya ra la va Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate śa ṣa sa ha

top


 Cons. + ā

The vowel "ā" after consonant is represented by the following character: Vowel . This stick-like character must be placed "after" the consonant.

Gutturals का खा khā गा घा ghā - -
Palatals चा छा chā जा झा jhā - -
Cerebrals टा ṭā ठा ṭhā डा ḍā ढा ḍhā णा ṇā
Dentals ता था thā दा धा dhā ना
Labials पा फा phā बा भा bhā मा
Semivowels या रा ला वा Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शा śā षा ṣā सा हा

top


 Cons. + i

The vowel "i" after consonant is represented by the following character: Vowel . This character must be placed "before" the consonant.

Gutturals कि ki खि khi गि gi घि ghi - -
Palatals चि ci छि chi जि ji झि jhi - -
Cerebrals टि ṭi ठि ṭhi डि ḍi ढि ḍhi णि ṇi
Dentals ति ti थि thi दि di धि dhi नि ni
Labials पि pi फि phi बि bi भि bhi मि mi
Semivowels यि yi रि ri लि li वि vi Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शि śi षि ṣi सि si हि hi

top


 Cons. + ī

The vowel "ī" after consonant is represented by the following character: Vowel . This character must be placed "after" the consonant.

Gutturals की खी khī गी घी ghī - -
Palatals ची छी chī जी झी jhī - -
Cerebrals टी ṭī ठी ṭhī डी ḍī ढी ḍhī णी ṇī
Dentals ती थी thī दी धी dhī नी
Labials पी फी phī बी भी bhī मी
Semivowels यी री ली वी Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शी śī षी ṣī सी ही

top


 Cons. + u

The vowel "u" after consonant is represented by the following character: u - after consonant. This character must be placed "under" the consonant, except "ra" (See "ru"). Besides, the character must be drawn in contact with the vertical line in those consonants having one, of course.

Gutturals कु ku खु khu गु gu घु ghu - -
Palatals चु cu छु chu जु ju झु jhu - -
Cerebrals टु ṭu ठु ṭhu डु ḍu ढु ḍhu णु ṇu
Dentals तु tu थु thu दु du धु dhu नु nu
Labials पु pu फु phu बु bu भु bhu मु mu
Semivowels यु yu रु ru लु lu वु vu Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शु śu षु ṣu सु su हु hu

top


 Cons. + ū

The vowel "ū" after consonant is represented by the following character: ū - after consonant. This character must be placed "under" the consonant, except "ra" (See "rū"). Besides, the character must be drawn in contact with the vertical line in those consonants having one, of course.

Gutturals कू खू khū गू घू ghū - -
Palatals चू छू chū जू झू jhū - -
Cerebrals टू ṭū ठू ṭhū डू ḍū ढू ḍhū णू ṇū
Dentals तू थू thū दू धू dhū नू
Labials पू फू phū बू भू bhū मू
Semivowels यू रू लू वू Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शू śū षू ṣū सू हू

top


 Cons. + ṛ

The vowel "ṛ" after consonant is represented by the following character: ṛ - after consonant. This character must be placed "under" the consonant. Besides, the character must be drawn in contact with the vertical line in those consonants having one, of course. Also note that da + ṛ = dṛ and ha + ṛ = hṛ form conjuncts (See Conjuncts). A last thing,
l + ṛ = lṛ and not "ḷ" (the vowel). In other words, lṛ (l + ṛ) is लृ while ḷ (the vowel) is , careful!

Gutturals कृ kṛ खृ khṛ गृ gṛ घृ ghṛ - -
Palatals चृ cṛ छृ chṛ जृ jṛ - - - -
Cerebrals - - - - - - - - - -
Dentals तृ tṛ - - दृ dṛ धृ dhṛ नृ nṛ
Labials पृ pṛ - - बृ bṛ भृ bhṛ मृ mṛ
Semivowels - - - - लृ lṛ वृ vṛ Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शृ śṛ - - सृ sṛ हृ hṛ

top


 Cons. + ṝ

The vowel "ṝ" after consonant is represented by the following character: ṝ - after consonant. This character must be placed "under" the consonant. Besides, the character must be drawn in contact with the vertical line in those consonants having one, of course.

Gutturals कॄ kṝ - - गॄ gṝ - - - -
Palatals - - - - जॄ jṝ - - - -
Cerebrals - - - - - - - - - -
Dentals तॄ tṝ - - दॄ dṝ धॄ dhṝ नॄ nṝ
Labials पॄ pṝ - - बॄ bṝ भॄ bhṝ मॄ mṝ
Semivowels - - - - - - वॄ vṝ Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शॄ śṝ - - सॄ sṝ - -

top


 Cons. + ḷ

The vowel "ḷ" after consonant is represented by the following character:Vowel ḷ. This character must be placed "under" the consonant. Besides, the character must be drawn in contact with the vertical line of "k" (the only letter presenting usual combinations with ḷ).

Gutturals कॢ kḷ - - - - - - - -
Palatals - - - - - - - - - -
Cerebrals - - - - - - - - - -
Dentals - - - - - - - - - -
Labials - - - - - - - - - -
Semivowels - - - - - - - - Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate - - - - - - - -

top


 Cons. + e

The vowel "e" after consonant is represented by the following character: Vowel e after consonant. This character must be placed "above" the consonant. Besides, the character must be drawn in contact with the vertical line (short or long).

Gutturals के ke खे khe गे ge घे ghe - -
Palatals चे ce छे che जे je झे jhe - -
Cerebrals टे ṭe ठे ṭhe डे ḍe ढे ḍhe णे ṇe
Dentals ते te थे the दे de धे dhe ने ne
Labials पे pe फे phe बे be भे bhe मे me
Semivowels ये ye रे re ले le वे ve Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शे śe षे ṣe से se हे he

top


 Cons. + ai

The vowel "ai" after consonant is represented by the following character: Vowel ai after consonants. This character must be placed "above" the consonant. Besides, the character must be drawn in contact with the vertical line (short or long).

Gutturals कै kai खै khai गै gai घै ghai - -
Palatals चै cai छै chai जै jai झै jhai - -
Cerebrals टै ṭai ठै ṭhai डै ḍai ढै ḍhai णै ṇai
Dentals तै tai थै thai दै dai धै dhai नै nai
Labials पै pai फै phai बै bai भै bhai मै mai
Semivowels यै yai रै rai लै lai वै vai Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शै śai षै ṣai सै sai है hai

top


 Cons. + o

The vowel "o" after consonant is represented by the following character: Vowel . This character must be placed "after" the consonant.

Gutturals को ko खो kho गो go घो gho - -
Palatals चो co छो cho जो jo झो jho - -
Cerebrals टो ṭo ठो ṭho डो ḍo ढो ḍho णो ṇo
Dentals तो to थो tho दो do धो dho नो no
Labials पो po फो pho बो bo भो bho मो mo
Semivowels यो yo रो ro लो lo वो vo Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शो śo षो ṣo सो so हो ho

top


 Cons. + au

The vowel "au" after consonant is represented by the following character: Vowel . This character must be placed "after" the consonant.

Gutturals कौ kau खौ khau गौ gau घौ ghau - -
Palatals चौ cau छौ chau जौ jau झौ jhau - -
Cerebrals टौ ṭau ठौ ṭhau डौ ḍau ढौ ḍhau णौ ṇau
Dentals तौ tau थौ thau दौ dau धौ dhau नौ nau
Labials पौ pau फौ phau बौ bau भौ bhau मौ mau
Semivowels यौ yau रौ rau लौ lau वौ vau Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शौ śau षौ ṣau सौ sau हौ hau

top


 Cons. + ṁ

The vowel "ṁ" (Anusvāra) after consonant is represented by the following character: Anusvāra (one dot). This character must be placed "above" the consonant. Besides, the character must be drawn "right" above the vertical line (short or long).

Gutturals कं kaṁ खं khaṁ गं gaṁ घं ghaṁ - -
Palatals चं caṁ छं chaṁ जं jaṁ झं jhaṁ - -
Cerebrals टं ṭaṁ ठं ṭhaṁ डं ḍaṁ ढं ḍhaṁ णं ṇaṁ
Dentals तं taṁ थं thaṁ दं daṁ धं dhaṁ नं naṁ
Labials पं paṁ फं phaṁ बं baṁ भं bhaṁ मं maṁ
Semivowels यं yaṁ रं raṁ लं laṁ वं vaṁ Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शं śaṁ षं ṣaṁ सं saṁ हं haṁ

top


 Cons. + ḥ

The vowel "ḥ" (Visarga) after consonant is represented by the following character: : (two dots). This character must be placed "after" the consonant.

Gutturals कः kaḥ खः khaḥ गः gaḥ घः ghaḥ - -
Palatals चः caḥ छः chaḥ जः jaḥ झः jhaḥ - -
Cerebrals टः ṭaḥ ठः ṭhaḥ डः ḍaḥ ढः ḍhaḥ णः ṇaḥ
Dentals तः taḥ थः thaḥ दः daḥ धः dhaḥ नः naḥ
Labials पः paḥ फः phaḥ बः baḥ भः bhaḥ मः maḥ
Semivowels यः yaḥ रः raḥ लः laḥ वः vaḥ Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शः śaḥ षः ṣaḥ सः saḥ हः haḥ

top


 Cons. + i + ṁ (ANUSVĀRA)

In this case, you must draw "i" as usual (i.e. before the consonant) and place Anusvāra right above the vertical line (short or long).

Gutturals किं kiṁ खिं khiṁ गिं giṁ घिं ghiṁ - -
Palatals चिं ciṁ छिं chiṁ जिं jiṁ झिं jhiṁ - -
Cerebrals टिं ṭiṁ ठिं ṭhiṁ डिं ḍiṁ ढिं ḍhiṁ णिं ṇiṁ
Dentals तिं tiṁ थिं thiṁ दिं diṁ धिं dhiṁ निं niṁ
Labials पिं piṁ फिं phiṁ बिं biṁ भिं bhiṁ मिं miṁ
Semivowels यिं yiṁ रिं riṁ लिं liṁ विं viṁ Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शिं śiṁ षिं ṣiṁ सिं siṁ हिं hiṁ

top


 Cons. + ī + ṁ (ANUSVĀRA)

In this case, you must draw "ī" as usual (i.e. after the consonant) and place Anusvāra on the right. Look:

Gutturals कीं kīṁ खीं khīṁ गीं gīṁ घीं ghīṁ - -
Palatals चीं cīṁ छीं chīṁ जीं jīṁ झीं jhīṁ - -
Cerebrals टीं ṭīṁ ठीं ṭhīṁ डीं ḍīṁ ढीं ḍhīṁ णीं ṇīṁ
Dentals तीं tīṁ थीं thīṁ दीं dīṁ धीं dhīṁ नीं nīṁ
Labials पीं pīṁ फीं phīṁ बीं bīṁ भीं bhīṁ मीं mīṁ
Semivowels यीं yīṁ रीं rīṁ लीं līṁ वीं vīṁ Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शीं śīṁ षीं ṣīṁ सीं sīṁ हीं hīṁ

top


 Cons. + e + ṁ (ANUSVĀRA)

In this case, you must draw "e" as usual (i.e. above the consonant) and place Anusvāra on the right. Note that there is no word beginning or ending with these combinations, but some of them might "maybe" appear within a word. I have not investigated if this is true yet.

Gutturals कें keṁ खें kheṁ गें geṁ घें gheṁ - -
Palatals चें ceṁ छें cheṁ जें jeṁ झें jheṁ - -
Cerebrals टें ṭeṁ ठें ṭheṁ डें ḍeṁ ढें ḍheṁ णें ṇeṁ
Dentals तें teṁ थें theṁ दें deṁ धें dheṁ नें neṁ
Labials पें peṁ फें pheṁ बें beṁ भें bheṁ में meṁ
Semivowels यें yeṁ रें reṁ लें leṁ वें veṁ In this case, no words either begin or end with these combinations, but some of them "might" appear within a word anyway. That is why I kept all of them.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शें śeṁ षें ṣeṁ सें seṁ हें heṁ

top


 Cons. + ai + ṁ (ANUSVĀRA)

Just as with "e", you must draw "ai" as usual (i.e. above the consonant) and place Anusvāra on the right. Note that some of the following combinations might not be usual... I have not strictly found out which ones are usual yet, but I know that "kaiṁ", "vaiṁ", "saiṁ" and "haiṁ" actually appear in some words.

Gutturals कैं kaiṁ खैं khaiṁ गैं gaiṁ घैं ghaiṁ - -
Palatals चैं caiṁ छैं chaiṁ जैं jaiṁ झैं jhaiṁ - -
Cerebrals टैं ṭaiṁ ठैं ṭhaiṁ डैं ḍaiṁ ढैं ḍhaiṁ णैं ṇaiṁ
Dentals तैं taiṁ थैं thaiṁ दैं daiṁ धैं dhaiṁ नैं naiṁ
Labials पैं paiṁ फैं phaiṁ बैं baiṁ भैं bhaiṁ मैं maiṁ
Semivowels यैं yaiṁ रैं raiṁ लैं laiṁ वैं vaiṁ In this case, some of the following combinations might not be usual... I have not strictly found out which ones are usual yet, but I know that "kaiṁ", "vaiṁ", "saiṁ" and "haiṁ" actually appear in some words. Just in case, I kept all of them anyway.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शैं śaiṁ षैं ṣaiṁ सैं saiṁ हैं haiṁ

top


 Cons. + o + ṁ (ANUSVĀRA)

You must draw "o" as usual (i.e. after the consonant) and place Anusvāra on the right. Note that some of the following combinations might not be usual... I have not strictly found out which ones are usual yet, but I know that "koṁ", "bhoṁ" and "śoṁ" actually appear in some words.

Gutturals कों koṁ खों khoṁ गों goṁ घों ghoṁ - -
Palatals चों coṁ छों choṁ जों joṁ झों jhoṁ - -
Cerebrals टों ṭoṁ ठों ṭhoṁ डों ḍoṁ ढों ḍhoṁ णों ṇoṁ
Dentals तों toṁ थों thoṁ दों doṁ धों dhoṁ नों noṁ
Labials पों poṁ फों phoṁ बों boṁ भों bhoṁ मों moṁ
Semivowels यों yoṁ रों roṁ लों loṁ वों voṁ In this case, some of the following combinations might not be usual... I have not strictly found out which ones are usual yet, but I know that "koṁ", "bhoṁ", and "śoṁ" actually appear in some words. Just in case, I kept all of them anyway.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शों śoṁ षों ṣoṁ सों soṁ हों hoṁ

top


 Cons. + au + ṁ (ANUSVĀRA)

Just as with "o", you must draw "au" as usual (i.e. after the consonant) and place Anusvāra on the right. Note that some of the following combinations might not be usual... I have not strictly found out which ones are usual yet, but I know that "pauṁ" actually appears in some words.

Gutturals कौं kauṁ खौं khauṁ गौं gauṁ घौं ghauṁ - -
Palatals चौं cauṁ छौं chauṁ जौं jauṁ झौं jhauṁ - -
Cerebrals टौं ṭauṁ ठौं ṭhauṁ डौं ḍauṁ ढौं ḍhauṁ णौं ṇauṁ
Dentals तौं tauṁ थौं thauṁ दौं dauṁ धौं dhauṁ नौं nauṁ
Labials पौं pauṁ फौं phauṁ बौं bauṁ भौं bhauṁ मौं mauṁ
Semivowels यौं yauṁ रौं rauṁ लौं lauṁ वौं vauṁ In this case, some of the following combinations might not be usual... I have not strictly found out which ones are usual yet, but I know that "pauṁ" actually appears in some words. Just in case, I kept all of them anyway.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate शौं śauṁ षौं ṣauṁ सौं sauṁ हौं hauṁ

top


 r + cons.

A piece of cake! Just place the hook-like character (R before consonants) representing "r" before consonant on top of the consonant itself.

Gutturals र्क rka र्ख rkha र्ग rga र्घ rgha - -
Palatals र्च rca र्छ rcha र्ज rja र्झ rjha - -
Cerebrals र्ट rṭa र्ठ rṭha र्ड rḍa र्ढ rḍha र्ण rṇa
Dentals र्त rta र्थ rtha र्द rda र्ध rdha र्न rna
Labials र्प rpa र्फ rpha र्ब rba र्भ rbha र्म rma
Semivowels र्य rya - - र्ल rla र्व rva Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्श rśa र्ष rṣa र्स rsa र्ह rha

top


 r + cons. + ā

In this case, the hook-like character (R before consonants) must be placed on top of the "ā" vowel (Vowel ) and not on top of the consonant.

Gutturals र्का rkā र्खा rkhā र्गा rgā र्घा rghā - -
Palatals र्चा rcā र्छा rchā र्जा rjā र्झा rjhā - -
Cerebrals र्टा rṭā र्ठा rṭhā र्डा rḍā र्ढा rḍhā र्णा rṇā
Dentals र्ता rtā र्था rthā र्दा rdā र्धा rdhā र्ना rnā
Labials र्पा rpā र्फा rphā र्बा rbā र्भा rbhā र्मा rmā
Semivowels र्या ryā - - र्ला rlā र्वा rvā Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शा rśā र्षा rṣā र्सा rsā र्हा rhā

top


 r + cons. + i

In this case, the hook-like character (R before consonants) must be placed on top of the consonant.

Gutturals र्कि rki र्खि rkhi र्गि rgi र्घि rghi - -
Palatals र्चि rci र्छि rchi र्जि rji र्झि rjhi - -
Cerebrals र्टि rṭi र्ठि rṭhi र्डि rḍi र्ढि rḍhi र्णि rṇi
Dentals र्ति rti र्थि rthi र्दि rdi र्धि rdhi र्नि rni
Labials र्पि rpi र्फि rphi र्बि rbi र्भि rbhi र्मि rmi
Semivowels र्यि ryi - - र्लि rli र्वि rvi Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शि rśi र्षि rṣi र्सि rsi र्हि rhi

top


 r + cons. + ī

In this case, the hook-like character (R before consonants) must be placed to the right of "ī" vowel (vowel ī). In fact, the "r" character is practically merged into the curved portion of "ī" character. Look:

Gutturals र्की rkī र्खी rkhī र्गी rgī र्घी rghī - -
Palatals र्ची rcī र्छी rchī र्जी rjī र्झी rjhī - -
Cerebrals र्टी rṭī र्ठी rṭhī र्डी rḍī र्ढी rḍhī र्णी rṇī
Dentals र्ती rtī र्थी rthī र्दी rdī र्धी rdhī र्नी rnī
Labials र्पी rpī र्फी rphī र्बी rbī र्भी rbhī र्मी rmī
Semivowels र्यी ryī - - र्ली rlī र्वी rvī Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शी rśī र्षी rṣī र्सी rsī र्ही rhī

top


 r + cons. + u

In this case, the hook-like character (R before consonants) must be placed on top of the consonant as usual. Nothing strange happening here, hehe.

Gutturals र्कु rku र्खु rkhu र्गु rgu र्घु rghu - -
Palatals र्चु rcu र्छु rchu र्जु rju र्झु rjhu - -
Cerebrals र्टु rṭu र्ठु rṭhu र्डु rḍu र्ढु rḍhu र्णु rṇu
Dentals र्तु rtu र्थु rthu र्दु rdu र्धु rdhu र्नु rnu
Labials र्पु rpu र्फु rphu र्बु rbu र्भु rbhu र्मु rmu
Semivowels र्यु ryu - - र्लु rlu र्वु rvu Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शु rśu र्षु rṣu र्सु rsu र्हु rhu

top


 r + cons. + ū

Just as with "u", the hook-like character (R before consonants) must be placed on top of the consonant as usual.

Gutturals र्कू rkū र्खू rkhū र्गू rgū र्घू rghū - -
Palatals र्चू rcū र्छू rchū र्जू rjū र्झू rjhū - -
Cerebrals र्टू rṭū र्ठू rṭhū र्डू rḍū र्ढू rḍhū र्णू rṇū
Dentals र्तू rtū र्थू rthū र्दू rdū र्धू rdhū र्नू rnū
Labials र्पू rpū र्फू rphū र्बू rbū र्भू rbhū र्मू rmū
Semivowels र्यू ryū - - र्लू rlū र्वू rvū Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शू rśū र्षू rṣū र्सू rsū र्हू rhū

top


 r + cons. + ṛ

Just as with "ū", the hook-like character (R before consonants) must be placed on top of the consonant as usual.

Gutturals र्कृ rkṛ र्खृ rkhṛ र्गृ rgṛ र्घृ rghṛ - -
Palatals र्चृ rcṛ र्छृ rchṛ र्जृ rjṛ - - - -
Cerebrals - - - - - - - - - -
Dentals र्तृ rtṛ - - र्दृ rdṛ र्धृ rdhṛ र्नृ rnṛ
Labials र्पृ rpṛ - - र्बृ rbṛ र्भृ rbhṛ र्मृ rmṛ
Semivowels - - - - र्लृ rlṛ र्वृ rvṛ Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शृ rśṛ - - र्सृ rsṛ र्हृ rhṛ

top


 r + cons. + ṝ

Just as with "ṛ", the hook-like character (R before consonants) must be placed on top of the consonant as usual.

Gutturals र्कॄ rkṝ - - र्गॄ rgṝ - - - -
Palatals - - - - र्जॄ rjṝ - - - -
Cerebrals - - - - - - - - - -
Dentals र्तॄ rtṝ - - र्दॄ rdṝ र्धॄ rdhṝ र्नॄ rnṝ
Labials र्पॄ rpṝ - - र्बॄ rbṝ र्भॄ rbhṝ र्मॄ rmṝ
Semivowels - - - - - - र्वॄ rvṝ Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शॄ rśṝ - - र्सॄ rsṝ - -

top


 r + cons. + ḷ

Ḷ vowel only combines with "k": kḷ (कॢ). If I place "r" before "kḷ", the final result would be "rkḷ" (र्कॢ). However, I have never seen this combination in practice.

top


 r + cons. + e

In this case, the hook-like character (R before consonants) must be placed to the right of "e" vowel (Vowel e after consonant). In fact, the "r" character is practically merged into the curved portion of "e" character. Look:

Gutturals र्के rke र्खे rkhe र्गे rge र्घे rghe - -
Palatals र्चे rce र्छे rche र्जे rje र्झे rjhe - -
Cerebrals र्टे rṭe र्ठे rṭhe र्डे rḍe र्ढे rḍhe - -
Dentals र्ते rte र्थे rthe र्दे rde र्धे rdhe र्ने rne
Labials र्पे rpe र्फे rphe र्बे rbe र्भे rbhe र्मे rme
Semivowels र्ये rye - - र्ले rle र्वे rve Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शे rśe र्षे rṣe र्से rse र्हे rhe

top


 r + cons. + ai

Just as with "e", the hook-like character (R before consonants) must be placed to the right of "ai" vowel (Vowel ai after consonants). In fact, the "r" character is practically merged into the "ai" character. Look:

Gutturals र्कै rkai र्खै rkhai र्गै rgai र्घै rghai - -
Palatals र्चै rcai र्छै rchai र्जै rjai र्झै rjhai - -
Cerebrals र्टै rṭai र्ठै rṭhai र्डै rḍai र्ढै rḍhai र्णै rṇai
Dentals र्तै rtai र्थै rthai र्दै rdai र्धै rdhai र्नै rnai
Labials र्पै rpai र्फै rphai र्बै rbai र्भै rbhai र्मै rmai
Semivowels र्यै ryai - - र्लै rlai र्वै rvai Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शै rśai र्षै rṣai र्सै rsai र्है rhai

top


 r + cons. + o

Just as with "ai", the hook-like character (R before consonants) must be placed to the right of "o" vowel (Vowel ). In fact, the "r" character is practically merged into the curved portion of "o" character. Look:

Gutturals र्को rko र्खो rkho र्गो rgo र्घो rgho - -
Palatals र्चो rco र्छो rcho र्जो rjo र्झो rjho - -
Cerebrals र्टो rṭo र्ठो rṭho र्डो rḍo र्ढो rḍho र्णो rṇo
Dentals र्तो rto र्थो rtho र्दो rdo र्धो rdho र्नो rno
Labials र्पो rpo र्फो rpho र्बो rbo र्भो rbho र्मो rmo
Semivowels र्यो ryo - - र्लो rlo र्वो rvo Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शो rśo र्षो rṣo र्सो rso र्हो rho

top


 r + cons. + au

Just as with "o", the hook-like character (R before consonants) must be placed to the right of "au" vowel (Vowel ). In fact, the "r" character is practically merged into the curved portion of "au" character. Look:

Gutturals र्कौ rkau र्खौ rkhau र्गौ rgau र्घौ rghau - -
Palatals र्चौ rcau र्छौ rchau र्जौ rjau र्झौ rjhau - -
Cerebrals र्टौ rṭau र्ठौ rṭhau र्डौ rḍau र्ढौ rḍhau र्णौ rṇau
Dentals र्तौ rtau र्थौ rthau र्दौ rdau र्धौ rdhau र्नौ rnau
Labials र्पौ rpau र्फौ rphau र्बौ rbau र्भौ rbhau र्मौ rmau
Semivowels र्यौ ryau - - र्लौ rlau र्वौ rvau Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शौ rśau र्षौ rṣau र्सौ rsau र्हौ rhau

top


 r + cons. + ṁ

This case is a special one. You must place the little dot --Anusvāra-- (Anusvāra) "within" the hook-like character (R before consonants) representing "r" before consonant. Look:

Gutturals र्कं rkaṁ र्खं rkhaṁ र्गं rgaṁ र्घं rghaṁ - -
Palatals र्चं rcaṁ र्छं rchaṁ र्जं rjaṁ र्झं rjhaṁ - -
Cerebrals र्टं rṭaṁ र्ठं rṭhaṁ र्डं rḍaṁ र्ढं rḍhaṁ र्णं rṇaṁ
Dentals र्तं rtaṁ र्थं rthaṁ र्दं rdaṁ र्धं rdhaṁ र्नं rnaṁ
Labials र्पं rpaṁ र्फं rphaṁ र्बं rbaṁ र्भं rbhaṁ र्मं rmaṁ
Semivowels र्यं ryaṁ - - र्लं rlaṁ र्वं rvaṁ Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शं rśaṁ र्षं rṣaṁ र्सं rsaṁ र्हं rhaṁ

top


 r + cons. + ḥ

Nothing strange in this case. Just place "r" on top of the consonant, and Visarga (:) --two dots-- on the right.

Gutturals र्कः rkaḥ र्खः rkhaḥ र्गः rgaḥ र्घः rghaḥ - -
Palatals र्चः rcaḥ र्छः rchaḥ र्जः rjaḥ र्झः rjhaḥ - -
Cerebrals र्टः rṭaḥ र्ठः rṭhaḥ र्डः rḍaḥ र्ढः rḍhaḥ र्णः rṇaḥ
Dentals र्तः rtaḥ र्थः rthaḥ र्दः rdaḥ र्धः rdhaḥ र्नः rnaḥ
Labials र्पः rpaḥ र्फः rphaḥ र्बः rbaḥ र्भः rbhaḥ र्मः rmaḥ
Semivowels र्यः ryaḥ - - र्लः rlaḥ र्वः rvaḥ Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate र्शः rśaḥ र्षः rṣaḥ र्सः rsaḥ र्हः rhaḥ

top


 r + conjunct

In this case you just place the hook-like character (R before consonants) representing "r" before consonant on top of the conjunct, which should be dealt with as if it were a normal consonant. As a matter of fact, I have not verified which combinations between "r" and the conjuncts are usual (it would be too much for my weak intellect). Of course, many of them will not be usual at all (e.g. "rtnsya" or "rlma", my God what bizarre combinations, hehe!). However, I chose to display all possible combinations this time, except those with conjuncts beginning with "r" because in practice there cannot be the "rr" combination by 8th Rule of Visarga Sandhi (Vides Rules of Sandhi). I did so for you to be able to see by yourself how to place "r" in multiple situations. Besides, I did not want to have a split headache trying to find out which combinations are usual and which ones are not, haha.

GUTTURALS
र्क्क rkka र्क्क्ण rkkṇa र्क्क्य rkkya र्क्ख rkkha र्क्च rkca
र्क्त rkta rkt rkt र्क्थ rktha र्क्त्य rktya र्क्त्र rktra
र्क्त्व rktva र्क्थ्न rkthna र्क्न rkna र्क्न्य rknya र्क्म rkma
र्क्य rkya र्क्र rkra र्क्ल rkla र्क्ष rkṣa र्क्ष्ण rkṣṇa
र्क्ष्म rkṣma र्क्ष्य rkṣya र्क्ष्व rkṣva र्ख्न rkhna र्ख्य rkhya
र्ख्र rkhra र्ग्ध rgdha र्ग्न rgna र्ग्य rgya र्ग्र rgra
र्ग्ल rgla र्ग्व rgva र्घ्न rghna र्घ्न्य rghnya र्घ्म rghma
र्घ्य rghya र्घ्र rghra र्घ्व rghva र्ङ्क rṅka र्ङ्क्त rṅkta
र्ङ्ख rṅkha र्ङ्ग rṅga - - - - - -
PALATALS
र्च्च rcca र्च्छ rccha र्च्छ्र rcchra र्च्ञ rcñ र्च्म rcma
र्च्य rcya र्छ्य rchya र्छ्र rchra र्ज्ज rjja र्ज्झ rjjha
र्ज्ञ rjña र्ज्म rjma र्ज्य rjya र्ज्र rjra र्ज्व rjva
र्ञ्च rñca र्ञ्छ rñcha र्ञ्ज rñja - - - -
CEREBRALS
र्ट्ट rṭṭa र्ट्य rṭya र्ठ्ठ rṭhṭha र्ठ्य rṭhya र्ठ्र rṭhra
र्ड्य rḍya र्ढ्य rḍhya र्ढ्र rḍhra र्ण्ट rṇṭa र्ण्ठ rṇṭha
र्ण्ड rṇḍa र्ण्ढ rṇḍha र्ण्ण rṇṇa र्ण्म rṇma र्ण्य rṇya
र्ण्व rṇva - - - - - - - -
DENTALS
र्त्क rtka र्त्क्र rtkra र्त्त rtta र्त्त्य rttya र्त्त्र rttra
र्त्त्व rttva र्त्थ rttha र्त्न rtna र्त्न्य rtnya र्त्प rtpa
र्त्म rtma र्त्म्य rtmya र्त्य rtya र्त्र rtra र्त्र्य rtrya
र्त्व rtva र्त्स rtsa र्त्स्न rtsna र्त्स्न्य rtsnya र्त्स्य rtsya
र्थ्न rthna र्थ्य rthya र्थ्व rthva र्द्ग rdga र्द्ग्र rdgra
र्द्घ rdgha र्द्द rdda र्द्ध rddha र्द्ध्य rddhya र्द्न rdna
र्द्ब rdba र्द्भ rdbha र्द्भ्य rdbhya र्द्म rdma र्द्य rdya
र्द्र rdra र्द्र्य rdrya र्द्व rdva र्द्व्य rdvya र्ध्न rdhna
र्ध्न्य rdhnya र्ध्म rdhma र्ध्य rdhya र्ध्र rdhra र्ध्व rdhva
र्न्त rnta र्न्त्य rntya र्न्त्र rntra र्न्द rnda र्न्द्र rndra
र्न्ध rndha र्न्ध्य rndhya र्न्ध्र rndhra र्न्न rnna र्न्प्र rnpra
र्न्म rnma र्न्य rnya र्न्र rnra र्न्स rnsa - -
LABIALS
र्प्त rpta र्प्त्य rptya र्प्न rpna र्प्प rppa र्प्म rpma
र्प्य rpya र्प्र rpra र्प्ल rpla र्प्व rpva र्प्स rpsa
र्प्स्व rpsva र्ब्ज rbja र्ब्द rbda र्ब्ध rbdha र्ब्न rbna
र्ब्ब rbba र्ब्भ rbbha र्ब्य rbya र्ब्र rbra र्ब्व rbva
र्भ्न rbhna र्भ्य rbhya र्भ्र rbhra र्भ्व rbhva र्म्न or र्म्न rmna
र्म्प rmpa र्म्प्र rmpra र्म्ब rmba र्म्भ rmbha र्म्य rmya
र्म्र rmra र्म्ल rmla र्म्व rmva - - - -
SEMIVOWELS
र्य्य ryya र्य्व ryva र्ल्क rlka र्ल्प rlpa र्ल्म rlma
र्ल्य rlya र्ल्ल rlla र्ल्व rlva र्व्न rvna र्व्य rvya
र्व्र rvra र्व्व rvva - - - - - -
SIBILANTS
र्श्च rśca र्श्न rśna र्श्य rśya र्श्र rśra र्श्ल rśla
र्श्व rśva र्श्व्य rśvya र्श्श rśśa र्ष्ट rṣṭa र्ष्ट्य rṣṭya
र्ष्ट्र rṣṭra र्ष्ट्र्य rṣṭrya र्ष्ठ rṣṭha र्ष्ठ्य rṣṭhya र्ष्ठ्र rṣṭhra
र्ष्ण rṣṇa र्ष्ण्य rṣṇya र्ष्प rṣpa र्ष्प्र rṣpra र्ष्म rṣma
र्ष्य rṣya र्ष्व rṣva र्स्क rska र्स्ख rskha र्स्त rsta
र्स्त्य rstya र्स्त्र rstra र्स्त्व rstva र्स्थ rstha र्स्न rsna
र्स्न्य rsnya र्स्प rspa र्स्फ rspha र्स्म rsma र्स्य rsya
र्स्र rsra र्स्व rsva र्स्स rssa - - - -

SONANT ASPIRATE
र्ह्ण rhṇa र्ह्न rhna र्ह्म rhma र्ह्य rhya र्ह्र rhra
र्ह्ल rhla र्ह्व rhva - - - - - -

top


 r + conjunct + vowel

In the first place, do not run away in despair friend since I am not going to exhibit all possible combinations between r + conjunct + vowel. I did not go mad... yet. No, it is not necessary at all. For building the combination, just add the vowels as usual to r + cons. Really simple. A few examples now... just a few ones, do not worry, hehe. Again, I have not verified which combinations are usual and which ones are not (e.g. "rṅgo" is certainly strange). Whether usual or not, take the following examples as... examples for you to learn how to write in Sanskrit in every situation. A last thing, I will be following the Sanskrit alphabetical order in the

A few examples of r + cons. + vowel र्क्की rkī र्ख्नि rkhni र्ग्लौ rglau र्घ्रे rghre र्ङ्गो rṅgo
र्च्चु rccu र्छ्यू rchyū र्ज्ञा rjñā - - र्ञ्जि rñji
र्ट्यु rṭyu र्ठ्यू rṭhyū र्ड्यः rḍyaḥ र्ढ्री rḍhrī र्ण्वि rṇvi
र्त्तृ rttṛ र्थ्नी rthnī र्द्दॄ rddṝ र्ध्न्यं rdhnyaṁ र्न्नौ rnnau
र्प्नो rpno - - र्ब्रू rbrū र्भ्रु rbhru र्म्नि rmni
र्य्यी ryyī - - र्ल्ला rllā र्व्रो rvro Some combinations are really unusual,
but they are useful anyway as examples.
र्श्वै rśvai र्ष्टृ rṣṭṛ र्स्त्री rstrī र्ह्मे rhme

top


 Cons. + r

The consonant "r" after consonant is represented by the following two characters: R after consonant and R after consonant - variant. The former is used in those consonants having a vertical stroke or some point where the character may be fitted in (e.g. and , the first one has a vertical stroke while the second one has room for fitting in the character. Look: क्र --kra-- and द्र --dra--). The latter (i.e. R after consonant - variant character) is to be used whenever there is no vertical stroke or some point where to fit in the first character (i.e. R after consonant character). For instance, if you want to add "r" to (ṭa), you will have to use the second character for "r" after consonant as there is no point in which you may fit in the first one. Look: ट्र (ṭra).

A last thing, note that "śra" is "usually" formed from: śa - variant (variant of "śa") + R after consonant and + R after consonant.

Gutturals क्र kra ख्र khra ग्र gra घ्र ghra - -
Palatals च्र cra छ्र chra ज्र jra झ्र jhra - -
Cerebrals ट्र ṭra ठ्र ṭhra ड्र ḍra ढ्र ḍhra ण्र ṇra
Dentals tra or त्र tra थ्र thra द्र dra ध्र dhra न्र nra
Labials प्र pra फ्र phra ब्र bra भ्र bhra म्र mra
Semivowels - - - - ल्र lra व्र vra Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen. Note how "r" in "hra" is placed inside the curve.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate श्र śra ष्र ṣra स्र sra ह्र hra

top


 Cons. + r + vowel

Relax friend because I am not going to display every possible combinations between cons. + r + vowel. It is not necessary at all as these combinations are easy to write and do not present any further problems, believe me. Again, I have not verified which combinations are usual and which ones are not (e.g. "phrau" is really strange), but be sure that most of them are usual. Whether usual or not, take the following examples as...

Of course, the vowels "ṛ, ṝ and ḷ" will not appear. Why?... try to pronounce "krḷ" (krrrrrrrrrrrllllllllllri, haha). In this particular case, the combinations cons. + r + ṛ, ṝ or ḷ are neither usual nor possible indeed. Ah, the combination cons. + r + "a" vowel will not be shown either since "a" is already included in the consonants (See Cons. + r).

A last thing, I will be following the Sanskrit alphabetical order in the examples:

Gutturals क्रा krā ख्रि khri ग्री grī घ्रु ghru - -
Palatals च्रू crū छ्रे chre ज्रै jrai झ्रो jhro - -
Cerebrals ट्रौ ṭrau ठ्रं ṭhraṁ ड्रः ḍraḥ ढ्रा ḍhrā ण्रि ṇri
Dentals trī
or त्री
trī थ्रु thru द्रू drū ध्रे dhre न्रै nrai
Labials प्रो pro फ्रौ phrau ब्रं braṁ भ्रः bhraḥ म्रा mrā
Semivowels - - - - ल्रि lri
(this is not ḷ vowel, careful!)
व्री vrī Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate श्रु śru ष्रू ṣrū स्रे sre ह्रै hrai

top


 Cons. + y

There are two possible situations before adding "y" to a consonant: 1) You can remove "a" vowel from the consonant by using two different methods --removing vertical stroke (e.g. c "c") or shortening the little curl (e.g. k "k")--; 2) You cannot use the previous two methods because there is neither vertical line nor little curl, and consequently you are bound to utilize Virāma (Virāma). In the first situation, just add "y" as usual. Nevertheless, in the second situation you can avoid to use Virāma by changing the "y" character itself () to y - special. Look: ṭa () + ya () = ṭya ट् य (using Virāma... the text should be much closer --a continuous horizontal line-- but the Sanskrit 2003 font prevents me to do so without forming the ligature) or else ट्य (not using it, and forming the ligature). Of course, the second option is mostly used.

Note how I had to use "r" before consonant (R before consonants) when adding "ya" to "r".

A last thing: all conjuncts formed from cons. + y are conjuncts with their component elements fully discernible, except "dya" (द्य) and "hya" (ह्य), which are conjuncts with their component elements "slightly" discernible "Conjuncts" in Writing for more information).

Gutturals क्य kya ख्य khya ग्य gya घ्य ghya - -
Palatals च्य cya छ्य chya ज्य jya झ्य jhya - -
Cerebrals ट्य ṭya ठ्य ṭhya ड्य ḍya ढ्य ḍhya ण्य ṇya
Dentals त्य tya थ्य thya द्य dya ध्य dhya न्य nya
Labials प्य pya फ्य phya ब्य bya भ्य bhya म्य mya
Semivowels य्य yya र्य rya ल्य lya व्य vya Cells with hyphen indicate combinations which are not usually seen.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate श्य śya ष्य ṣya स्य sya ह्य hya

top


 Other combinations

And now, just a few more examples of other two possible combinations: "conjunct + y" and "conjunct + r". Just use the rules I taught you previously when adding "y" and "r" to a conjunct. Note that I am not showing only usual combinations as some "unusual" ones are also shown (e.g. "ghnra"... a really weird combination, hehe).

Gutturals क्क्य kkya क्ख्र kkhra ग्ल्य glya घ्न्र ghnra ङ्क्य ṅkya
Palatals च्छ्र cchra च्छ्य cchya ज्ज्र jjra ज्झ्य jjhya ञ्ज्र ñjra
Cerebrals ट्ठ्य ṭṭhya ठ्ठ्र ṭhṭhra ड्ड्य ḍḍya ड्ढ्र ḍḍhra ण्ठ्य ṇṭhya
Dentals त्त्र ttra थ्न्य thnya द्द्र ddra ध्म्य dhmya न्न्र nnra
Labials प्न्य pnya फ्न्य phnya
(note how the little curl in "ahph" is shortened)
ब्ब्र bbra भ्म्य bhmya म्म्र mmra
Semivowels य्व्र yvra र्त्त्य rttya ल्ल्र llra व्न्य vnya All combinations are possible but not always usual.
Sibilants and Sonant Aspirate श्च्य ścya ष्ठ्य ṣṭhya स्त्र stra ह्र्य hrya

Well, this is the end of the document. I hope you enjoyed in reading this document as much as I did in writing it. Keep learning Sanskrit and be happy. See you soon.

top


 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

Ezt a dokumentumot Gabriel Pradīpaka, a website egyik társalapítója készítette, aki spirituális guru és aki a Szanszkrit nyelv és a Trika filozófiai rendszerben jártas.

Szanszkrit, Yoga és indiai filozófiával kapcsolatosan, vagy ha csupán hozzászólni, kérdezni szeretnél, esetleg hibára felhívni a figyelmet, bátran lépj kapcsolatba velünk: Ez az e-mail címünk.