Sanskrit & Sánscrito (Главная)

JavaScript отключён! Перейдите по этой ссылке!


Изучение санскрита - Произношение 2

Буквы


 Introduction

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, as an additional support to his page "Writing: Appendix 1". Here, we are going to deepen in the pronunciation of words. In this second issue we will learn how to pronounce properly over 70 words. It is my fervent desire that all these sacred sounds may help you to experience joy in your life, in the same way as they did in ours.

There is a measure unit called 'mātrā' or "time gap needed to pronounce a short vowel (like 'a')". Short vowels (a, i, u, ṛ, ḷ) last 1 mātrā, while long vowels (ā, ī, ū, ṝ) and diphthongs (e, ai, o, au) last 2 mātrā-s. In turn, Anusvāra ('ṁ') and Visarga ('ḥ') last 1/2 mātrā.

Have three documents at hand (print them if you can): Transliterating (2) (English), Sanskrit Alphabet and Conjuncts. You will need them very often.

To download the sounds, click on the respective icon and then select the adequate choice. If you have the Quick Time plugin installed, it is possible that you cannot download the sound directly. To work this problem around, right-click on the icon and select "Save link as..." or something like that (the statements vary according to the different browsers). That is it! Obviously, you can alternately uninstall the Quick Time plugin, but maybe you might need it for some other things. So, it is your choice, not mine.

The sound files are "properly" named, of course, so that you can recognize the words immediately.

top


 Words

Sign Translit. Sound Description
शिव Śiva Auspicious, etc.
सदाशिव Sadāśiva Ever-Auspicious, etc.
शक्ति Śakti Power, etc.
योग Yoga Union; uniting, etc.
मन्त्र mantra Advise; sacred sound, etc.
ध्यान dhyāna Meditation, etc.
आसन āsana Posture, etc.
गुरु guru Heavy; one who dissipates darkness by means of his light, etc.
संस्कृत Saṁskṛta Sanskrit (lit. polished, refined, etc.).
त्रिक Trika An epithet of Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir (lit. triple, threefold, forming a triad).
मुद्रा mudrā Seal, parched or fried grain, etc.
बन्ध bandha Bondage, bond, lock, etc.
परमशिव Paramaśiva The Supreme Auspicious, the Highest Śiva.
प्रकाश Prakāśa Visible, clear, manifest, splendour, brightness, etc.
विमर्श Vimarśa Examination, knowledge, intelligence, etc.
ईश्वर Īśvara
or
Lord, master, one who is able to, etc.
यन्त्र yantra Any instrument for holding or restraining or fastening, support, machine, engine, mystical diagram, etc.
उपनिषत् Upaniṣat Esoteric doctrine, secret doctrine, the celebrated and well-known philosophical writings, etc.
वेद Veda Sacred knowledge, the famous and well-known four books which constitute the basis of Hinduism, etc.
तन्त्र Tantra Loom, the leading or principal or essential part, framework, doctrine, rule, the celebrated books which constitute the basis of many philosophical systems (e.g. Trika), etc.
महाभारत Mahābhārata The great war of the Bhārata-s. Name of the great epic poem describing the acts and contests of the sons of the two brothers Dhṛtarāṣṭra and Pāṇḍu.
रामायण Rāmāyaṇa The Vālmīki's celebrated poem, describing the "goings" of Rāma and his wife Sītā.
तत्त्व tattva
or
Thatness, category of Manifestation.
ऋग्वेद Ṛgveda "Hymn-Veda" or "Veda of praise". It is the most ancient sacred book of the Hindus.
यजुर्वेद Yajurveda "The sacrificial Veda", the collective body of sacred Mantra-s or texts which constitute the Yajurveda.
सामवेद Sāmaveda "Veda of chants". It contains a number of verses or stanzas nearly all of which (except about 78) occur in the Ṛgveda.
अथर्ववेद Atharvaveda Name of the fourth Veda, which is said to have been composed by the sage Atharvā.
अहङ्कार ahaṅkāra Ego, false I-sense. Tattva 1 according to Trika (Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir).
शिवसूत Śivasūtra "The aphorisms of Śiva". A very important scripture in Trika (Non-dual Shaivism of Kashmir) --It came directly from Śiva, the Supreme Being--.
स्पन्दकारिका Spandakārikā "The aphorisms of Supreme Vibration". Another crucial scripture belonging to Trika, but its author is a human being.
प्रत्यभिज्ञा pratyabhijñā Recognition. According to Trika, Śiva is not to be known but recognized He is not an object to be known but the Highest Subject.
उत्पलदेव Utpaladeva A great Trika master . He wrote "Īśvarapratyabhijñā", a very celebrated scripture of Trika.
अर्जुन Arjuna "White". One of the Bhārata brothers.
कृष्ण Kṛṣṇa "Black". Even though He was God Himself, He played the role of Arjuna's charioteer in the Mahābhārata.
राम Rāma God Himself playing the role of a prince in the Rāmāyaṇa.
बुद्ध Buddha "Awakened, awake". It is also the name of the sage who was born at Kapilavastu about the year 600 B.C. Śākyamuni was his family name.
वसुगुप्त Vasugupta The sage who practically founded Trika. He received the Śivasūtra-s from Śiva.
कल्लट Kallaṭa A celebrated disciple of Vasugupta. He is said to have composed the Spandakārikā, but according to the sage Kṣemarāja, Vasugupta was the real author.
क्षेमराज Kṣemarāja The great sage who was a disciple of Abhinavagupta. He wrote many important commentaries on Trika's scriptures: e.g. Śivasūtravimarśinī, Spandanirṇaya, etc.
वसिष्ठ Vasiṣṭha Name of a celebrated Vedic sage. He was the Rāma's guru.
बुद्धि buddhi Intellect, intelligence, the power of forming and retaining conceptions and general notions. It is the tattva 14 in Trika.
मनः manaḥ Mind. It is the tattva 16 in Trika.
इन्द्रिय indriya Power, force, power of the senses, etc.
ज्ञान jñāna Knowledge.
क्रिया kriyā Activity, action.
इच्छा icchā Will.
सद्विद्या Sadvidyā Pure knowledge. Name of the fifth tattva in Trika.
माया Māyā Illusion, deception, unreality, etc. Name of the sixth tattva in Trika.
कञ्चुक Kañcuka Cover, envelope, the skin of a snake, etc. "Sheath of ignorance" (tattva-s 7 to 11 in Trika).
कर्म karma Action, act, rite, etc.
महाभूत mahābhūta Gross element. There are five Mahābhūta-s: ether, air, fire, water and earth.
तन्मात्र tanmātra Subtle element. There are five Tanmātra-s.
कुङ्कुम kuṅkuma Saffron.
अग्नि agni Fire. The third Mahābhūta.
वायु vāyu Air. The second Mahābhūta.
आकाश ākāśa Ether, space. The first Mahābhūta.
पृथिवी pṛthivī Earth. The fifth Mahābhūta.
आपः āpaḥ Water. The fourth Mahābhūta.
पुरुष puruṣa Person, individual soul, etc. Name of the tattva 12 in Trika.
प्रकृति prakṛti The original or natural form or condition of anything, original or primary substance, cause, original source, etc. Name of the tattva 13 in Trika.
कण्ठ्य kaṇṭhya Guttural.
तालव्य tālavya Palatal.
मूर्धन्य mūrdhanya Cerebral.
दन्त्य dantya Dental.
ओष्ठ्य oṣṭhya Labial.
अन्तस्थ antastha Semivowel.
स्वर svara Vowel.
महाप्राण mahāprāṇa Aspirate or hard breathing (heard in the utterance of certain letters, specially consonants: kha, gha, tha, etc.).
ऊष्म ūṣma Sibilant.
कूटबीज kūṭabīja Esoteric name of "kṣa" conjunct.
आचार्य ācārya Spiritual guide or teacher, etc.
देव deva God.

top


 Concluding remarks

Well, I hope you have learnt and enjoyed these wonderful words. Since these were terms you commonly find in Yoga and so on, their right pronunciation is of the highest importance. Pronounce such words in a proper manner, and you will have your way paved toward complete mastery as regards Sanskrit pronunciation, no doubt about it.

top


 Further Information

Габриэль Pradīpaka

Этот документ был составлен Габриэлем Pradīpaka, одним из двух основателей этого сайта, духовным гуру, экспертом в санскрите и философии Трика.

Для получения дополнительной информации о санскрите, йоге и философии, или если вы просто хотите оставить комментарий, задать вопрос или нашли ошибку, напишите нам: Это наша электронная почта.