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 Learning Sanskrit - First Steps - 1

First Steps: Appendix of Learning Sanskrit - First Steps (4) and (5)


Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka again. You have studied in First Steps (4) and First Steps (5) the relationship between the Sanskrit alphabet and the levels of Creation. In this document, two charts will be available for you, one containing important information about Vācya, Vācaka and the origin of the latter, and the other dealing with epithets for some Sanskrit letters. After that, the entire commentary by Kṣemarāja on 7th aphorism (Section II) of Śivasūtra-s will be exhibited, but this time without any commentary by me in between.

What is Vācya and Vācaka? They are the two branches through which the Six Courses (Ṣaḍadhvā) move (Go to Ṣaḍadhvā for more information). In other words, Vācaka is that which "indicates" while Vācya is that which is "indicated" by Vācaka. For example, when you study Ṣaḍadhvā you learn that from Mantra stage (seed syllables) Tattva (categories) emerges. In short, Vācaka is the sound aspect which is always a Subject, while Vācya is the thing denoted by that sound aspect, and it is always an Object. Subject-Object, Knower-Knowable, Experient-Experienced, etc. are many ways to express the same thing. The Sanskrit letters are those aforesaid "seed syllables" (Mantra). They belong to Vācaka side obviously. In turn, the tattva-s or categories belong to Vācya side, of course. The Object or Vācya arises from the Subject or Vācaka. It is very simple-to-understand. Do not think that this process of Vācya emerging from Vācaka is an strange one... something divine occurring in a far far away galaxy, haha. Not at all. It is something happening day to day. For instance: "all of a sudden you want to drink milk". A thought related to milk arises in your mind. This is Vācaka, is sound. After that, you look for a bottle of milk in the fridge. If you do not find one, you go to the supermarket and get the milk. Granted, if you have no money, you do not get the milk at once. However, you will get it sooner or later if the desire for it continues in your mind constantly. This is a simple example about how Vācaka (a thought, in this case) gives rise to Vācya (milk, in this case). All things in this world have been born from Vācaka. All things around are there because of Vācaka (sound aspect) in you. Ponder over it.

If you have any doubt, study again First Steps (4) and Sanskrit (5) along with Ṣaḍadhvā.


 Vācya-Vācaka and the origin of Vācaka

The chart now (See Tattvic Chart and Tattva-s & Sanskrit for more information):

Number Vācya
(Tattva in this case)
(Mantra or Seed Letter)
Vācaka is derived from...

1 Śiva a Itself
2 Śakti ā a

3 Sadāśiva i ā
ī i
i + ra
ī + ra
i + la
ī + la

4 Īśvara u i
ū u

5 Sadvidyā e a/ā + i
ai a/ā + e
o a/ā + u
au a/ā + o
śa i

6 Māyā va u oriented toward a
(or u and ḷ)
7 Kalā va u oriented toward a
(or u and ḷ)
8 Vidyā la ḷ oriented toward a
9 Rāga la ḷ oriented toward a
10 Kāla ra ṛ oriented toward a
11 Niyati ya i oriented toward a

12 Puruṣa ma u
13 Prakṛti bha u

14 Buddhi ba u
15 Ahaṅkāra pha u
16 Manas pa u

17 Śrotra na
18 Tvak dha
19 Cakṣus da
20 Jihvā tha
21 Ghrāṇa ta

22 Vāk ṇa
23 Pāṇi ḍha
24 Pāda ḍa
25 Pāyu ṭha
26 Upastha ṭa

27 Śabda ña i
28 Sparśa jha i
29 Rūpa ja i
30 Rasa cha i
31 Gandha ca i

32 Ākāśa ṅa a
33 Vāyu gha a
34 Agni ga a
35 Āpas kha a
36 Pṛthivī ka a


 Alternative names for some letters

Here you are some Sanskrit letters and their alternative names. Note that "kṣa", even though it may be referred to as a letter (in fact, it is commonly considered like that), is really a conjunct formed from k + sa.

Letter/s Alternative name/s Respective meaning/s
a Anuttara Lit. "Higher than which there is nothing",
i.e. "the highest, supreme, etc." 
Dhruva Fixed and immovable 
ā Ānanda Bliss
Paravisarga Supreme Visarga (Visarga lit. means "emission")
i Icchā Will 
ī Īśana Mastery or domination
ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ Amṛta-s Imperishable
Ṣaṇḍha-s Eunuch 
sa Paripūrṇāmṛta The imperishable letter that is completely full or perfect 
Ūṣmā Lit. "heat", that is, "hot letter"
Visargasāra The essence of Visarga 
u Unmeṣa Opening of the eyes  
ū Ūnatā Diminution 
ṣa Ūṣmā Lit. "heat", that is, "hot letter" 
Bindu Dot, or also "knower"
e Trikoṇa Triangular 
ai Ṣaṭkoṇa Hexagonal 
au Śūla Spear 
Triśūla  Trident
śa Ūṣmā Lit. "heat", that is, "hot letter"
Visarga Emission, or also "emissive power" 
Parāparavisarga Supreme/non-supreme Visarga  
ya ra la va Antastha-s Lit. "Semivowels", but philosophically
"those letters residing within human mind" 
Dhāraṇā-s The letters who support the universe by holding
the individual consciousness 
ka Anuttarasāra The essence of Anuttara (the letter "a") 
ha Ūṣmā Lit. "heat", that is, "hot letter"
Prāṇabīja The seed letter of Prāṇa or vital energy
Anāhatamaya That which consists of a unstruck sound
Anāhata Unstruck sound  
Aparavisarga Non-supreme or lower Visarga 
kṣa Kūṭabīja In grammar, it means "the letter that results from
the combination of two consonants (ka and sa, in this case);
but from a philosophical viewpoint, it means
"the excellent and mysterious seed letter" 


 The entire commentary by Kṣemarāja

Tired of the Gabriel Pradīpaka's comments, hehe?, well, this is your chance to read only the original commentary by Kṣemarāja and get rid of me for a while, hehe. Do not pass it up!

Important: Since the second paragraph is extremely long to be easily read and understood in English, I had to divide it into five sub-paragraphs in my translation (not in the original text in Devanāgarī and the transliteration, of course). However, do not forget that the character "|" and not the mere full stop indicates the end of a paragraph. The second paragraph begins with "According to the process (nītyā)..." and ends in " Puruṣa --tattva 12-- (puruṣa)". Besides, all that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me, except when such double hyphens contain a translated word in red color.


शिष्यस्य भवतीति शेषः। श्रीपरात्रिंशकादिनिर्दिष्टनीत्याहंविमर्शप्रथमकलानुत्तराकुलस्वरूपा प्रसरन्त्यानन्दस्वरूपा सतीच्छेशनभूमिकाभासनपुरःसरं ज्ञानात्मिकामुन्मेषदशां ज्ञेयाभासासूत्रणाधिक्येन चोनतां प्रदर्श्य इच्छामेव द्विरूपां विद्युद्विद्योतनकल्पतेजोमात्ररूपेण स्थैर्यात्मना चैषणीयेन रञ्जितत्वाद्रलश्रुत्यारूषितेनात एव स्वप्रकाशात्मीकृतमेयाभासत्वतोऽमृतरूपेण मेयाभासारूषणमात्रतश्च बीजान्तरप्रसवासमर्थतया षण्ढाख्यबीजचतुष्टयात्मना रूपेण प्रपञ्च्य प्रोक्तानुत्तरानन्देच्छासङ्घट्टेन त्रिकोणबीजमनुत्तरानन्दोन्मेषयोजनया च क्रियाशक्त्युपगमरूपमोकारं प्रोक्तैतद्बीजद्वयसङ्घट्टेन षट्कोणं शूलबीजं चेच्छाज्ञानशक्तिव्याप्तपूर्णक्रियाशक्तिप्रधानत्वाच्छक्तित्रयसङ्घट्टनमयं प्रदर्श्य इयत्पर्यन्तविश्वैकवेदनरूपं बिन्दुमुन्मील्य युगपदन्तर्बहिर्विसर्जनमयबिन्दुद्वयात्मानं विसर्गभूमिमुद्दर्शितवत्यत एवान्तर्विमर्शनेनानुत्तर एवैतद्विश्वं विश्रान्तं दर्शयति बहिर्विमर्शेन तु कादिमान्तं पञ्चकपञ्चकम् अ-इ-उ-ऋ-ऌ-शक्तिभ्यः पुरुषान्तं समस्तं प्रपञ्चयति। एकैकस्याश्च शक्तेः पञ्चशक्तित्वमस्तीत्येकैकतः पञ्चकोदयः। आभ्य एव शक्तिभ्यः शिक्षोक्तसञ्ज्ञानुसारेणान्तःपुम्भूमौ नियत्यादिकञ्चुकत्वेनावस्थानादन्तस्थाख्यान्प्रमातृभूमिधारणेन विश्वधारणाद्धारणाशब्देनाम्नायेषूक्तान् तदुपरिभेदविगलनेनाभेदापत्त्योन्मिषितत्वादूष्माभिधानाञ्चतुरो वर्णानाभासितवती। अत्र चान्ते सर्वसृष्टिपर्यन्तवर्ति परिपूर्णममृतवर्णं प्रदर्श्य तदन्ते प्राणबीजप्रदर्शनं कृतं तदनुत्तरशक्त्याप्यायितानाहतमयमियद्वाच्यवाचकरूपं षडध्वस्फारमयं विश्वमिति प्रत्यभिज्ञापयितुम्। अत एव प्रत्याहारयुक्त्यानुत्तरानाहताभ्यामेव शिवशक्तिभ्यां गर्भीकृतमेतदात्मकमेव विश्वमिति महामन्त्रवीर्यात्मनोऽहंविमर्शस्य तत्त्वम्। यथोक्तमस्मत्परमेष्ठिश्रीमदुत्पलदेवपादैः

प्रकाशस्यात्मविश्रान्तिरहम्भावो हि कीर्तितः।
उक्ता सैव च विश्रान्तिः सर्वापेक्षानिरोधतः॥
स्वातन्त्र्यमथ कर्तृत्वं मुख्यमीश्वरतापि च।

इति। तदियत्पर्यन्तं यन्मातृकायास्तत्त्वं तदेव ककारसकारप्रत्याहारेणानुत्तरविसर्गसङ्घट्टसारेण कूटबीजेन प्रदर्शितमन्त इत्यलं रहस्यप्रकटनेन। एवंविधायाः

... न विद्या मातृकापरा।

इत्याम्नायसूचितप्रभावाया मातृकायाः सम्बन्धिनश्चक्रस्य प्रोक्तानुत्तरानन्देच्छादिशक्तिसमूहस्य चिदानन्दघनस्वस्वरूपसमावेशमयः सम्यग्बोधो भवति। एतच्चेह दिङ्मात्रेणोट्टङ्कितम्। विततं त्वस्मत्प्रभुपादैः श्रीपरात्रिंशकाविवरणतन्त्रालोकादौ प्रकाशितम्। उक्तं च श्रीसिद्धामृते

सात्र कुण्डलिनी बीजजीवभूता चिदात्मिका।
तज्जं ध्रुवेच्छोन्मेषाख्यं त्रिकं वर्णास्ततः पुनः॥
आ इत्यवर्णादित्यादि यावद्वैसर्गिकी कला।
ककारादिसकारान्ताद्विसर्गात्पञ्चधा स च॥
बहिश्चान्तश्च हृदये नादेऽथ परमे पदे।
बिन्दुरात्मनि मूर्धान्ते हृदयाद्व्यापको हि सः।
आदिमान्त्यविहीनास्तु मन्त्राः स्युः शरदभ्रवत्।
गुरोर्लक्षणमेतावदादिमान्त्यं च वेदयेत्॥
पूज्यः सोऽहमिव ज्ञानी भैरवो देवतात्मकः।
श्लोकगाथादि यत्कञ्चिदादिमान्त्ययुतं यतः।
तस्माद्विदंस्तथा सर्वं मन्त्रत्वेनैव पश्यति।

इति। एतच्च स्पन्दे

सेयं क्रियात्मिका शक्तिः शिवस्य पशुवर्तिनी।
बन्धयित्री स्वमार्गस्था ज्ञाता सिद्ध्युपपादिका॥

इत्यनेनैव भङ्ग्या सूचितम्॥७॥

Śiṣyasya bhavatīti śeṣaḥ| Śrīparātriṁśakādinirdiṣṭanītyāhaṁvimarśaprathamakalānuttarākulasvarūpā prasarantyānandasvarūpā satīccheśanabhūmikābhāsanapuraḥsaraṁ jñānātmikāmunmeṣadaśāṁ jñeyābhāsāsutreṇādhikyena conatāṁ pradarśya icchāmeva dvirūpāṁ vidyudvidyotanakalpatejomātrarūpeṇa sthairyātmanā caiṣanīyena rañjitatvādralaśrutyārūṣitenāta eva svaprakāśātmīkṛtameyābhāsatvato'mṛtarūpeṇa meyābhāsārūṣaṇamātrataśca bījāntaraprasavāsamarthatayā ṣaṇḍḥākhyabījacatuṣṭayātmanā rūpeṇa prapañcya icchāmeva dvirūpāṁ vidyudvidyotanakalpatejomātrarūpeṇa sthairyātmanā caiṣanīyena rañjitatvādralaśrutyārūṣitenāta eva svaprakāśātmīkṛtameyābhāsatvato'mṛtarūpeṇa meyābhāsārūṣaṇamātrataśca bījāntaraprasavāsamarthatayā ṣaṇḍḥākhyabījacatuṣṭayātmanā rūpeṇa prapañcya iyatparyantaviśvaikavedanarūpaṁ bindumunmīlya yugapadantarbahirvisarjanamayabindudvayātmānaṁ visargabhūmimuddarśitavatyata evāntarvimarśenānuttara evaitadviśvaṁ viśrāntaṁ darśayati bahirvimarśena tu kādimāntaṁpañcakapañcakam a-i-u-ṛ-ḷ-śaktibhyaḥ puruṣāntaṁ samastaṁ prapañcayati| Ekaikasyāśca śakteḥ pañcaśaktitvamastītyekaikataḥ pañcakodayaḥ| Ābhya eva śaktibhyaḥ śikṣoktasañjñānusāreṇāntaḥpumbhūmau niyatyādikañcukatvenāvasthānādantasthākhyānpramātṛbhūmidhāraṇena viśvadhāraṇāddhāraṇāśabdenāmnāyeṣūktān taduparibhedavigalanenābhedāpattyonmiṣitatvādūṣmābhidhānāñcaturo varṇānābhāsitavatī| Atra cānte sarvasṛṣṭiparyantavarti paripūrṇamamṛtavarṇaṁ pradarśya tadante prāṇabījapradarśanaṁ kṛtam tadanuttaraśaktyāpyāyitānāhatamayamiyadvācyavācakarūpaṁ ṣaḍadhvasphāramayaṁ viśvamiti pratyabhijñāpayitum| Ata eva pratyāhārayuktyānuttarānāhatābhyāmeva śivaśaktibhyāṁ garbhīkṛtametadātmakameva viśvamiti mahāmantravīryātmano'haṁvimarśasya tattvam| Yathoktamasmatparameṣṭhiśrīmadutpaladevapādaiḥ

Prakāśasyātmaviśrāntirahambhāvo hi kīrtitaḥ|
Uktā saiva ca viśrāntiḥ sarvāpekṣānirodhataḥ||
Svātantryamatha kartṛtvaṁ mukhyamīśvaratāpi ca|

iti| Tadiyatparyantaṁ yanmātṛkāyāstattvaṁ tadeva kakārasakārapratyāhāreṇānuttaravisargasaṅghaṭṭasāreṇa kūṭabījena pradarśitamanta ityalaṁ rahasyaprakaṭanena| Evaṁvidhāyāḥ

... na vidyā mātṛkāparā|

ityāmnāyasūcitaprabhāvāyā mātṛkāyāḥ sambandhinaścakrasya proktānuttarānandecchādiśaktisamūhasya cidānandaghanasvasvarūpasamāveśamayaḥ samyagbodho bhavati| Etacceha diṅmātreṇoṭṭaṅkitam| Vitataṁ tvasmatprabhupādaiḥ śrīparātriṁśakāvivaraṇatantrālokādau prakāśitam| Uktaṁ ca śrīsiddhāmṛte

Sātra kuṇḍalinī bījajīvabhūtā cidātmikā|
Tajjaṁ dhruvecchonmeṣākhyaṁ trikaṁ varṇāstataḥ punaḥ||
Ā ityavarṇādityādi yāvadvaisargikī kalā|
Kakārādisakārāntādvisargātpañcadhā sa ca||
Bahiścāntaśca hṛdaye nāde'tha parame pade|
Bindurātmani mūrdhānte hṛdayādvyāpako hi saḥ|
Ādimāntyavihīnāstu mantrāḥ syuḥ śaradabhravat|
Gurorlakṣaṇametāvadādimāntyaṁ ca vedayet||
Pūjyaḥ so'hamiva jñānī bhairavo devatātmakaḥ|
Ślokagāthādi yatkañcidādimāntyayutaṁ yataḥ|
Tasmādvidaṁstathā sarvaṁ mantratvenaiva paśyati|

iti| Etacca spande

Seyaṁ kriyātmikā śaktiḥ śivasya paśuvartinī|
Bandhayitrī svamārgasthā jñātā siddhyupapādikā||

ityanenaiva bhaṅgyā sūcitam||7||

(From a pleased Guru accrues) enlightenment (sambodhaḥ) regarding the group (cakra) of letters (mātṛkā)||7||

"Accrues (bhavati) to the disciple (śiṣyasya)"; this is the remaining part (iti śeṣaḥ) (of the aphorism)|

According to the process (nītyā) indicated (nirdiṣṭa) in venerable (scriptures) (śrī) Parātriṁśaka (parātriṁśaka), etc. (ādi), Anuttarākula (anuttarākula) is the essential nature (sva-rūpā) of the first (prathama) aspect (kalā) of I-Consciousness (ahaṁvimarśa).

(Then, this first aspect of I-Consciousness, that is, pure Śakti,) is expanded (prasarantī... satī) in the form of (sva-rūpā) Ānanda (vowel "ā") (ānanda), and by means of (puraḥsaram) Her Manifesting Power (ābhāsana) --which appears as the stages (bhūmikā) of Icchā (vowel "i") (icchā) and Īśana (vowel "ī") (īśana)-- displays (pradarśya) the state (daśām) of Unmeṣa (vowel "u") (unmeṣa) whose essence (ātmikām) is Jñāna (jñāna). And (ca) through Her Opulence (ādhikyena), which is the origin (āsūtreṇa) of the sparkling manifestation (ābhāsā) of objects (jñeya), (that very pure Śakti brings) Ūnatā (vowel "ū") (ūnatām) (into existence).

(Next, this very Śakti) manifests (prapañcya) the Will (icchām eva) --which has two (dvi) forms (rūpām) (i.e. "i" and "ī")-- combined with that which is merely (mātrarūpeṇa) a "light" (tejas) similar to (kalpa) the flash (vidyotana) of a lightning (vidyut) (i.e. the element "fire" whose body or kula is "r". She) also (ca) (manifests Icchā or Will) combined with that whose nature (ātmanā... eṣanīyena) is firmness (sthairya) (i.e. the element "earth" whose body or kula is "l". From these combinations, the vowels "ṛ, ṝ, ḷ and ḹ" arise. These vowels are not really produced letters but heard sounds) because they are (merely) colored (rañjitatvāt) or tinted (ārūṣitena) by the sounds (śrutyā) "ra" (ra) (and) "la" (la) (i.e. by the letters of fire and earth respectively; note that "ra" is simply "r" --seed letter-- plus "a", and "la" is "l" --seed letter-- plus "a". Not only) because of what was stated in the previous sentence (atas eva), but also inasmuch as (the vowels ṛ, ṝ, ḷ and ḹ) appear (ābhāsatvataḥ) as (subtle) objects (meya) assimilated (ātmīkṛta) to their own (sva) light (prakāśa), they are known as Imperishable (letters) (amṛtarūpeṇa). And (ca) since they are merely (mātrataḥ) tinted (ārūṣaṇa) by the objective (meya) manifestation (ābhāsa), they are not able (asamarthatayā) to give rise (prasava) to other (antara) seed letters (bīja). (As a result,) this group of four (catuṣṭayātmanā rūpeṇa) seed letters (bīja) is designated (ākhya) Eunuch (ṣaṇḍḥa).

(After that, Śakti) manifests the seed letter (bījam) Trikoṇa --i.e. the vowel "e"-- (tri-koṇa) by means of the combination (saṅghaṭṭena) of Icchā --i.e. "i"-- (icchā) with Anuttara --i.e. "a"-- (anuttara) and Ānanda --i.e. "ā"-- (ānanda), which were previously referred to (prokta). And (ca) through the union (yojanayā) of Unmeṣa --i.e. "u"-- (unmeṣa) with Anuttara --i.e. "a"-- (anuttara) and Ānanda --i.e. "ā"-- (ānanda), (She manifests) the letter (kāram) "o" (o), whose nature (rūpam) indicates (upagama) (the appearance of) Kriyāśakti (kriyā-śakti). (Afterward,) by combining (saṅghaṭṭena) these (etad) aforesaid (prokta) groups formed from two (dvaya) seed letters (bīja), --i.e. the groups "a-ā" and "e-o"--, (Śakti) manifests (pradarśya) Ṣaṭkoṇa --i.e. the vowel "ai"-- (ṣaṭkoṇam) and (ca) the seed letter (bījam) Śūla --i.e. the vowel "au"-- (śūla). Because (in the letter "au") there is predominance (pradhānatvāt) of Kriyāśakti (kriyā-śakti) --at its height-- (pūrṇa) pervaded (vyāpta) by Icchāśakti and Jñānaśakti (icchā-jñāna-śakti), (the Goddess manifests that letter) as composed (mayam) of the union or combination (saṅghaṭṭana) of the three (traya) (abovementioned) śakti-s (śakti) (i.e. Icchā, Jñāna and Kriyā).

(Following, Śakti) displays (unmīlya) Bindu (bindum), whose nature (saṅghaṭṭena) is a undivided (eka) Knowledge (vedana) of the universe (viśva), to its very frontiers (indeed) (iyatparyanta). (Afterward, this Śakti) shows (uddarśitavatī) the stage (bhūmim) of Visarga (visarga) consisting (ātmānam) in a couple (dvaya) points (bindu) which are full (maya) of simultaneous (yugapad) outward (bahis) (and) inward (antar) emission (visarjana). (So,) because of all this (which has been mentioned) (atas eva), (the Supreme Goddess) --through (Her) inner (antar) Awareness (vimarśanena)-- shows (darśayati) this (etad) universe (viśvam) as resting (viśrāntam) only (eva) on Anuttara --i.e. the vowel "a"-- (anuttaraḥ); but (tu) by means of (Her) outer (bahis) Awareness (vimarśena), (She) manifests (prapañcayati) --through the śakti-s or powers (śaktibhyaḥ) a-i-u-ṛ-ḷ (a-i-u-ṛ-ḷ)-- five groups (pañcakam) of five letters (each) (pañcaka) --beginning (ādi) with the letter "ka" (ka) and ending (antam) in the letter "ma" (ma)-- as an aggregate (samastam) (of five groups formed from five tattva-s or categories each) --(starting with tattva 36 or earth element) and ending (antam) in Puruṣa --tattva 12-- (puruṣa)--|

And (ca) for each (ekaikasyāḥ) śakti (śakteḥ) (that is, for each of those five letters --a, i, ṛ, ḷ and u--) there is (asti) a group of five (pañca) śakti-s (śaktitvam). Thus (iti), from each (of these śakti-s) (ekaikataḥ) an emergence (udayaḥ) of five (letters) (pañcaka) (is brought about)|

(After that,) from the same śakti-s (eva śaktibhyaḥ) --beginning from "ā" (ābhyaḥ)-- (the Supreme Power) manifests (ābhāsitavatī) the four (caturaḥ) letters (varṇān) known as (ākhyān) Antastha (antastha) (that is, the letters "ya, ra, la and va") --in agreement (anusāreṇa) with the terminology (sañjñā) which is used (ukta) in Śikṣā (the science of phonetics) (śikṣā)-- since they reside (avasthānāt), together with Niyati (niyati) and the other (ādi) Kañcuka-s (kañcukatvena), within (antar) Puruṣa (pumbhūmau). (On the other hand,) in the revealed scriptures (āmnāyeṣu) they are designated (uktān) by means of the term (śabdena) Dhāraṇā (dhāraṇā), because they support (dhāraṇāt) the universe (viśva) by holding (dhāraṇena) the stage (bhūmi) of "limited knower or experient" (pramātṛ). Above (upari) that (Māyātattva) (tad), (the Venerable Śakti) manifests (ābhāsitavatī) the four (caturaḥ) letters (varṇān) known as (abhidhānān) Ūṣmā (ūṣmā) (that is, the letters "śa, ṣa, sa and ha"), since they are displayed (unmiṣitatvāt) on the dissapearance (vigalanena) of difference (bheda) and on the (subsequent) appearance (āpattyā) of non-difference (abheda)|

And (ca) here (atra), (that is, in the Ūṣmā letters, Śakti or I-consciousness) exhibits (pradārśya) ultimately (ante) the completely perfect (paripūrṇam) Amṛta (amṛta) letter (varṇam) (the letter "sa"), which is situated (varti) at the end (paryanta) of the whole (sarva) Manifestation (sṛṣṭi). After (ante) that (tad), (She) shows (pradarśanaṁ kṛtam) the Prāṇabīja (prāṇabīja), (the letter "ha". She does) that (tad) in order to make one realize or recognize (iti pratyabhijñāpayitum) that this universe (viśvam) [whose form (rūpam) comprises (iyat) Vācaka (vācaka) --(words)-- (and) Vācya (vācya) --(objects denoted by those words)-- and consists (mayam) of the expansion (sphāra) of the six (ṣaṭ) courses or paths (adhva)] becomes full-fledged or full-grown (āpyāyita) in Anāhatamaya (anāhatamayam), (an epithet of the letter "ha"), due to Anuttaraśakti (ābhāsitavatī) (the letter "a" or Śiva)|

Therefore (atas eva), the principle or essence (tattvam) of I-consciousness (aham-vimarśasya), whose nature (ātmanaḥ) is the Virility or Power (vīrya) of the Great (mahā) Mantra (mantra), (is as follows): "The universe (viśvam), by means (yuktyā) of Pratyāhāra (pratyāhāra), is permeated (garbhīkṛtam) by Anuttara and Anāhata (anuttarānāhatābhyām) (i.e. the letters "a" and "ha" respectively, which are) certainly (eva) Śiva and Śakti (śivaśaktibhyām). (For that reason,) it --i.e. "the universe"-- only (eva) consists (ātmakam) of This --i.e. "Śiva and Śakti"-- (etad... iti)"|

As (yathā) has been said (uktam) by the verses (pādaiḥ... iti) of Utpaladeva (utpaladeva), our (asmat) eminent (śrīmat) (and) supreme Master (parameṣṭhi):

"The Rest or Repose (viśrāntiḥ) of the Light of Consciousness (prakāśasya) within Itself (ātma) (is) undoubtedly (hi) known (kīrtitaḥ) as the I-concept (aham-bhāvaḥ). That (sā) is certainly (eva ca) called (uktā) Rest or Repose (viśrāntiḥ) inasmuch as it excludes (nirodhataḥ) all (sarva) expectation (apekṣā). Moreover (atha), it is Absolute Freedom (svātantryam), Main (mukhyam) Doership (kartṛtvam) as well as (api ca) Complete Supremacy (īśvaratā... iti)"|

Therefore (tad), that which (yad) (has been called) so far (iyat-paryantam) "the essence (tattvam) of Mātṛkā (mātṛkāyāḥ)", that very thing (tad eva) has been shown (pradarśitam) at the end (ante) through the Kūṭabīja --kṣa letter-- (kūtabījena). (This Kūṭabīja) is a Pratyāhāra (pratyāhāreṇa) of "ka" (ka) letter (kāra) (and) "sa" (sa) letter (kāra). (Thus, that Kūṭabīja) is formed from the combination (sanghaṭṭa) of the essences --sāra-- (sāreṇa) of Anuttara (anuttara) (and) Visarga (visarga) (respectively). Enough (iti-alam) of bringing to light (prakaṭanena) that which is secret (rahasya)!|

(Sambodha, in the aphorism,) is (bhavati) Complete (samyak) Enlightenment (bodhaḥ) consisting (mayaḥ) of an Absorption (samāveśa) into one's own Essential Nature (sva-sva-rūpa), which is a Compact Mass (ghana) of Consciousness (cit) (and) Bliss (ānanda). (Complete Enlightenment) regarding the aforesaid (prokta) group (cakrasya... samūhasya) of powers (śakti) (whose integrants are) Anuttara (anuttara), Ānanda (ānanda), Icchā (icchā), etc. (ādi), (and which) is connected (sambandhinaḥ) with Mātṛkā (mātṛkāyāḥ), whose --i.e. of Mātṛkā-- Efficacy or Power (prabhāvāyāḥ) has been indicated (sūcita) in the Revealed Scriptures (āmnāya) in the following manner (evaṁvidhāyāḥ... iti):

"... There is no (na) knowledge (vidyā) higher (parā) than (that of) Mātṛkā (mātṛkā)"|

This (etad ca) (has been) dealt with (uṭṭankitam) here (iha) through mere (mātreṇa) indication (dik)|

(This has been) certainly (tu) spread (vitatam) (and) revealed (prakāśitam) through the verses (pādaiḥ) of our (asmat) Master (prabhu) in venerable (śrī) Parātriṁśakāvivaraṇa (parātriṁśakāvivaraṇa), Tantrāloka (tantrāloka), etc. (ādau)|

In venerable (śrī) Siddhāmṛta (siddhāmṛte) (it has) also (ca) been declared (uktam) (by Śiva Himself to Pārvatī, his consort):

"Here (atra), that (sā) Kuṇḍalinī (ghana), whose nature (ātmikā) is Consciousness (cit), is (bhūtā) the Seed (bīja) and Life (jīva). Over and over again (punar), a triad (trikam) consisting (ākhyam) of Dhruva (dhruva), Icchā (icchā) (and) Unmeṣa (unmeṣa) --i.e. "a, i and u" vowels respectively-- arises (jam) from that (tad) Abode (astataḥ) of letters (varṇa).

From "a" (a) letter (varṇāt) (emerges) "ā" (ā iti), and so on (iti-ādi), right up to (yāvat) the portion (kalā) of Visarga (vaisargikī) --i.e. Parāparavisarga or "ḥ" to be exact--. From Visarga (visargāt) (is produced the group of letters) that begins (ādi) in "ka" (ka) letter (kāra) (and) ends --anta-- (antāt) in "sa" (sa) letter (kāra). And (ca), (in turn,) that (Visarga) (saḥ) (appears) in five ways (pañcadhā):

(1) Outside, (in the form of the universe) (bahis) and (ca... ca) inside (antar) (2) in the heart (hṛdaye), (3) in nāda --i.e. in the throat in this case-- (nāde) (and) certainly (atha) (4) in the Supreme (parama) Stage (pade) --i.e. between both of eyebrows--. (Besides,) that (saḥ) Bindu --i.e. Visarga-- (binduḥ) undoubtedly (hi) pervades (vyāpakaḥ) from the heart (hṛdayāt) up to (5) the top (ante) of the skull (mūrdha), (that is), up to the Self (Himself) (ātmani).

However (tu), the mantra-s (mantrāḥ) devoid (vihīnāḥ) of initial (ādi) "a" (a) (and) final (antya) "ma" (ma) --i.e. devoid of "aham" or I, Śiva--, are (syuḥ) like (vat) autumnal (śarat) clouds (abhra). The (essential) characteristic (laksaṇam) of a Guru (guroḥ) (is that) he explains (to his disciples) (ca vedayet) (that Mahāmantra or Great Mantra) whose measure (etāvat) (is as follows:) it begins (ādi) with "a" (a) (and) ends (antyam) with "ma" (ma) --i.e. "Aham" or I, Śiva--.

That (saḥ) Knower (jñānī), (that) Divine (devatā-ātmakaḥ) Bhairava (bhairavaḥ), is to be worshipped (pūjyaḥ) like (iva) Myself (aham). Seeing that (yatas) --to such a Guru-- any thing (yatkiñcid), whether it be a hymn of praise (śloka), a laudatory song (ghāthā), etc. (ādi), is united or connected (yutam) with (the Mahāmantra or Great Mantra) beginning (ādi) with "a" (a) (and) ending (antya) with "ma" (ma); therefore (tasmāt), (such a Guru) knowing (vidan) in that way (tathā), sees (paśyati) everything (sarvam) only (eva) as a Mantra (mantratvena... iti)"|

This (etad) (has been) also (stated) (ca) in the Spandakārikā-s (spande):

"This (iyam) very (sā) Power or Śakti (śaktiḥ) of Śiva (śivasya), whose nature (ātmikā) is activity (kriyā), abides (vartinī) in the paśu or conditioned being (paśu) (and) binds (him) (bandhayitrī). (However, when Śakti) is known or realized (jñātā) as staying (in the aforesaid paśu) (sthā) like the way (mārga) toward one's own Self (sva), produces (upapādikā) success (siddhi)"||
(See Spandakārikā-s III, 16)

(Thus,) through this (quote) (anena eva) has been indicated (sūcitam) (the same idea) but indirectly (bhaṅgyā)||7||


 Concluding remarks

My work on the seventh aphorism of the second section of Śivasūtra-s along with the brilliant commentary by Kṣemarāja is now finished. A great deal of secrets have been revealed to you during the process. Hopefully, all this knowledge will allow you to understand much better the intrinsic relationship between Sanskrit and the levels of Creation (tattva-s) taught by the Trika system. And through this ancient knowledge passed on us by the sages, you will have now more tools to turn your life into one which is full of the spiritual ideals stated by those very sages. What else might I say about that? I wish you the best of luck in your path to final Liberation which, paradoxically, is always Yours, dear Śiva.


 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

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