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Vowel Sandhi -Part 2- (Primary Rules cont.)
Hi, this is Gabriel Pradīpaka. We will continue to learn Vowel Sandhi (Primary Rules) here. Remember now the three kinds of Sandhi:
1) Vowel Combinations (Vowel Sandhi)
2) Visarga Combinations (Visarga Sandhi)
3) Consonant Combinations (Consonant Sandhi)
We are studying Vowel Combinations (Vowel Sandhi).
Four primary rules are left. But, before beginning with our study, remember the following table:
|WEAKENED GRADATION (simple vowels)||a||i-ī||u-ū||ṛ-ṝ||ḷ|
|STRENGTHENED GRADATION (Guṇa)||a||e||o||ar||al|
|PROTRACTED GRADATION (Vṛddhi)||ā||ai||au||ār||āl|
Besides, it is available now a page with plenty of examples for every rule which has been taught. Click here.
Let's begin our study right now.
This is a very important and useful rule. You will be using it all the time, no doubt.
4th Primary Rule
When "i-ī, u-ū, ṛ-ṝ and ḷ" are followed by a dissimilar vowel, then "y, v, r and l" are respectively substituted for them.
Look at the following table:
|i-ī||+||dissimilar vowel||=||y + dissimilar vowel|
|u-ū||+||dissimilar vowel||=||v + dissimilar vowel|
|ṛ-ṝ||+||dissimilar vowel||=||r + dissimilar vowel|
|ḷ||+||dissimilar vowel||=||l + dissimilar vowel|
One example for every case. Obviously, I am not giving all possible examples with every dissimilar vowel:
|योगि (yogi) + आनन्द (ānanda) = योग्यानन्द (yogyānanda)||सुधी (sudhī) + उपास्यः (upāsyaḥ) = सुध्युपास्यः (sudhyupāsyaḥ)|
|Bliss (ānanda) of a Yogī (yogi)||Adored (upāsyaḥ) by the wise (sudhī)|
|मधु (madhu) + अरि (ari) = मध्वरि (madhvari)||वधू (vadhū) + इच्छा (icchā) = वध्विच्छा (vadhvicchā)|
The enemy (ari) of Madhu (madhu)
--this is an epithet of Viṣṇu--
|The wish (icchā) of a wife (vadhū)|
|पितृ (pitṛ) + इङ्गित (iṅgita) = पित्रिङ्गित (pitriṅgita)||धातॄ (dhātṝ) + अंश (aṁśa) = धात्रंश (dhātraṁśa)|
|The gesture (iṅgita) of a father (pitṛ)||A portion (aṁśa) of earth (dhātṝ)|
|ऌ (ḷ) + आकृति (ākṛti) = लाकृति (lākṛti)|
|A form (ḷkāra) like that of ḷ (ḷ)|
This rule is really a complement of the 2nd primary rule.
5th Primary Rule
When "a" or "ā" are followed by a vṛddhi letter, both of them will be absorbed into the vṛddhi letter
Which are the vṛddhi letters? The little table appearing at the beginning of this page answers this question. They are the "protracted gradation" on that table. In a word: ā, ai, au, ār and āl. However, "ār" and "āl" are not letters but an aggregate of them: "ā + r" and "ā + l", respectively. Besides, it is obvious that "a" or "ā" combined with "ā" is again "ā". This is stated by the 3rd primary rule. So, just "ai" and "au" are left. They are the "vṛddhi letters" referred to in the present primary rule.
Look at the following table:
One example for every case:
|योग (yoga) + ऐक्य (aikya) = योगैक्य (yogaikya)||सेना (senā) + ऐश्वर्य (aiśvarya) = सेनैश्वर्य (senaiśvarya)|
|Unity (aikya) of Yoga (yoga)||The sovereignty (aiśvarya) of an army (senā)|
|योग (yoga) + औषध (auṣadha) = योगौषध (yogauṣadha)||सेना (senā) + औग्र्य (augrya) = सेनौग्र्य (senaugrya)|
|Yogic (yoga) herbs (auṣadha)||The fierceness (augrya) of an army (senā)|
This rule is very useful indeed. It is used often.
6th Primary Rule
"e", "o", "ai" and "au", when followed by a vowel "within one word", are changed to "ay", "av", "āy" and "āv" respectively. However, when there are "two words", one ending in "e", "o", "ai" and "au", and the other beginning with any vowel, this rule is optionally used. If not used, you must use the 7th primary rule.
This rule holds good when the combination occurs within a word. It could be used optionally with two words, but the 7th primary rule is used usually to rule over Sandhi between two words.
|e||+||any vowel (within one word or "optionally" among two words)||=||ay|
|o||+||any vowel (within one word or "optionally" among two words)||=||av|
|ai||+||any vowel (within one word or "optionally" among two words)||=||āy|
|au||+||any vowel (within one word or "optionally" among two words)||=||āv|
Two examples for every case:
|हरे (hare) + ए (e) = हरये (haraye)||मते (mate) + ए (e) = मतये (mataye)|
|For Hari (haraye)||For the intellect (mataye)|
|गुरो (guro) + ए (e) = गुरवे (gurave)||विष्णो (viṣṇo) + ए (e) = विष्णवे (viṣṇave)|
|For the guru (gurave)||For Viṣṇu (viṣṇave)|
|नै (nai) + अक (aka) = नायक (nāyaka)||गै (gai) + अति (ati) = गायति (gāyati)|
|A leader (nāyaka)||He/She/It sings (gāyati)|
|पौ (pau) + अक (aka) = पावक (pāvaka)||नौ (nau) + अवतु (avatu) = नाववतु (nāvavatu)|
|The purifier --i.e. "fire"-- (pāvaka)||May He/She/It protect (avatu) us (nau)|
The previous rule may be used within one word as well as among two words. The present rule is an optional one to be utilized when there are two words. It contains three subrules:
7th Primary Rule
a) "e" and "o" at the end of a word, when followed by any vowel (except "a") are firstly transformed into "ay" and "av" (6th primary rule) and then "y" and "v" may be optionally dropped. No coalescence after that, of course. That is, the words remain separate.
b) "e" and "o" at the end of a word, when followed by "a", do not undergo any changes. However, "a" merges into "e" and "o" and the apostrophe (avagraha) is written in its place.
c) "ai" and "au" at the end of a word, when followed by any vowel are firstly transformed into "āy" and "āv" (6th primary rule) and then "y" and "v" may be optionally dropped. No coalescence after that, of course. That is, the words remain separate.
And now a simple table:
|final "e"||+||any vowel (except "a")||=||a + any vowel (except "a")|
|final "o"||+||any vowel (except "a")||=||a + any vowel (except "a")|
|final "ai"||+||any vowel||=||ā + any vowel|
|final "au"||+||any vowel||=||ā + any vowel|
Two examples for every case:
|हरे (hare) + एहि (ehi) = हर एहि (hara ehi)||मतये (mataye) + उक्तः (uktaḥ) = मतय उक्तः (mataya uktaḥ)|
|Oh Hari (hare), come near (ehi)!||Something that has been told (uktaḥ) for the intellect (mataye)|
|गुरो (guro) + एहि (ehi) = गुर एहि (gura ehi)||विष्णो (viṣṇo) + आगच्छ (āgaccha) = विष्ण आगच्छ (viṣṇa āgaccha)|
|Oh guru (guro), come near (ehi)!||Oh Viṣṇu (viṣṇo), come (āgaccha)!|
|हरे (hare) + अव (ava) = हरेऽव (hare'va)||देवे (deve) + अहम् (aham) = देवेऽहम् (deve'ham)|
|Oh Hari (hare), protect (ava)!||I (am) (aham) in God (deve)|
|प्रभो (prabho) + अद्धि (addhi) = प्रभोऽद्धि (prabho'ddhi)||गुरो (guro) + अव (ava) = गुरोऽव (guro'va)|
|Oh Lord (prabho), eat (addhi)!||Oh guru (guro), protect (ava)!|
|श्रियै (śriyai) + उद्यतः (udyataḥ) = श्रिया उद्यतः (śriyā udyataḥ)||शक्त्यै (śaktyai) + उद्यतः (udyataḥ) = शक्त्या उद्यतः (śaktyā udyataḥ)|
|Intent on (udyataḥ) (getting) wealth (śriyai)||Intent on (udyataḥ) (getting) power (śaktyai)|
|गुरौ (gurau) + उत्कः (utkaḥ) = गुरा उत्कः (gurā utkaḥ)||विष्णौ (viṣṇau) + उत्कः (utkaḥ) = विष्णा उत्कः (viṣṇā utkaḥ)|
|Longing to see (utkaḥ) the guru (gurau)||Longing to see (utkaḥ) Viṣṇu (viṣṇau)|
It is over. These are the seven primary rules of Vowel Sandhi. You first must learn them all before diving into more complex rules of Sandhi. However, do not learn by heart. Not at all. Instead, attempt to understand their core and then go to the examples given in Combination - 1 (Appendix 1) for more information. There is a link to the aforesaid document on top of this document (click on "top" below, and then click on GO TO THE "EXAMPLES" PAGE). Have fun and keep learning Sanskrit.
This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.
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