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 Learning Sanskrit - Combination (6)

Consonant Sandhi -Part 2-


 Introduction

Hi, this is Gabriel Pradīpaka. This is the second and penultimate document on Consonant Sandhi (Combination of a final consonant with an initial consonant or vowel) here. Remember now the three kinds of Sandhi:

1) Vowel Combinations (Vowel Sandhi)

2) Visarga Combinations (Visarga Sandhi)

3) Consonant Combinations (Consonant Sandhi)

We will be studying many ways to combine Consonants (Consonant Sandhi) in this document. Keep in mind the following table always:

Gradations of Vowel Alternation
Type Vowels
WEAKENED GRADATION (simple vowels) a i-ī u-ū ṛ-ṝ
STRENGTHENED GRADATION (Guṇa) a e o ar al
PROTRACTED GRADATION (Vṛddhi) ā ai au ār āl

Besides, it is available now a page with plenty of examples for every rule which has been taught. Click here.

Let's begin our study right now.

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 11th Rule

A foremost rule:

11th Rule
According to the tenth Rule, "m" is always transformed into "Anusvāra" when situated at the end of a word and followed by a Consonant. In turn, if the Consonant is not "ś, ṣ, s or h", Anusvāra (ṁ) may be optionally transformed into the Nasal of the class to which that consonant belongs. This would be a complement to the 10 th rule of Consonant Sandhi really. However, this transformation is necessary if Anusvāra is in the middle of a word. Exception:
The words "sam" and "pum" have their own way of combination, and therefore they do not come completely under the present rule. These are also ruled by the following rules:
a) The "m" of "sam" (a prefix indicating either "conjunction" or "union" or "thoroughness", "intensity" or "completeness") is transformed into "ṁs" (and not either into "ṁ" or into "ṅ" as stated by the present rule) when followed by any form of the root "kṛ" (to do, to make, to perform, etc.). Anusvāra may also be optionally changed to Anunāsika (m̐). Thus, "ṁs" is turned into "m̐s".
b) The "m" of "pum" (a form which is used in compounds for "puṁs" --man, a human being, spirit of man, etc.--) is optionally changed to "ṁs" (and not either to "ṁ" or to the corresponding Nasal as stated by the present rule) when followed by a hard consonant (except a Sibilant) preceding a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h" (Careful with this!). Anusvāra may also be optionally changed to Anunāsika (m̐). Thus, "ṁs" is turned into "m̐s".

You may wonder why Anusvāra cannot be changed to the corresponding Nasal if it is followed by a "ś, ṣ, s or h". The reason is simple: Sibilants (ś, ṣ and s) and Sonant Aspirate (h) have no Nasal letter among them. So, you may think... "Well, Semivowels have no Nasal letter either but they have not been included... why?" No, you are making a mistake... Semivowels (except "ra") do have a Nasal form. However, this is not a formal letter to be included in the alphabet but a mere "nazalised form" formed from Anunāsika (m̐) and the corresponding Semivowel. Thus, you have: m̐y, m̐l, and finally m̐v. Surprise!, hehe! Anunāsika is to be pronounced as Anusvāra but the mouth should remain open and the sound must be even more nasalized.

A simple table now in which I summarize the entire rule:

Table 10
Anusvāra at the end of a word (this would be a complement to the 10th rule really)
Anusvāra (ṁ)
+
Any consonant except "ś, ṣ, s and h"
=
Anusvāra (ṁ) is optionally changed to the Nasal to which the consonant belongs
Anusvāra in the middle of a word
Anusvāra (ṁ) + Any consonant except "ś, ṣ, s and h" = Anusvāra (ṁ) is necessarily changed to the Nasal to which the consonant belongs
Exceptions
The "m" of "sam" + Any form of the root "kṛ" = "ṁs" (optionally "m̐s")
The "m" of "pum" + Any hard consonant (except Sibilants) preceding a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h" = It remains the same or it may be optionally changed to "ṁs" (as well as "m̐s")

A few examples now:

Anusvāra at the end of a word (this would be a complement to the 10th rule really)

Anusvāra (ṁ) + any Consonant except "ś, ṣ, s and h" = Anusvāra is optionally changed to the Nasal of the class to which the Consonant belongs (this is a kind of complement to the tenth rule of Consonant Sandhi)
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
I choose to use the 10th rule I choose to use the 11th rule (the present one) only if Anusvāra is followed by any consonant except "ś, ṣ, s and h". If Anusvāra is followed by these consonants, I have no way out but using the tenth rule, obviously.
कृतम् (kṛtam) + (ca) = कृतं च (kṛtaṁ ca) (This is generally used) कृतम् (kṛtam) + (ca) = कृतञ्च (kṛtañca) (This could optionally be used. Observe how the words have been joined together after the substitution. This joining saves space and makes the writing more compact and aesthetic)
And --or "also"-- (ca) done (kṛtam) And --or "also"-- (ca) done (kṛtam)
त्वम् (tvam) + करोषि (karoṣi) = त्वं करोषि (tvaṁ karoṣi) (This is generally used) त्वम् (tvam) + करोषि (karoṣi) = त्वङ्करोषि (tvaṅkaroṣi) (This could optionally be used. Observe how the words have been joined together after the substitution. This joining saves space and makes the writing more compact and aesthetic)
You (tvam) do (karoṣi) You (tvam) do (karoṣi)
सम् (sam) + प्रयुक्तः (samprayuktaḥ) = संप्रयुक्तः (saṁprayuktaḥ) (Even though these two words form a compound, they are two separate words though, careful!) सम् (sam) + प्रयुक्तः (samprayuktaḥ) = सम्प्रयुक्तः (samprayuktaḥ) (I prefer to use this substitution every time I can in compounds. I do not like to overuse Anusvāra, but if you want to do it... it is up to you!)
Something or someone that is yoked or joined together (saṁprayuktaḥ) ("sam" is a prefix) Something or someone that is yoked or joined together (samprayuktaḥ) ("sam" is a prefix)
सम् (sam) + वेदनम् (vedanam) = संवेदनम् (saṁvedanam) (This is generally used) सम् (sam) + वेदनम् (vedanam) = सँव्वेदनम्
(sam̐vvedanam) (This could optionally be used. Observe how the words have been joined together after the substitution. This joining saves space and makes the writing more compact and aesthetic)
The act of perceiving or feeling (saṁvedanam) ("sam" is a prefix) The act of perceiving or feeling (sam̐vvedanam) ("sam" is a prefix)

Anusvāra in the middle of a word

Anusvāra (ṁ) + any Consonant except "ś, ṣ, s and h" = Anusvāra is necessarily changed to the Nasal of the class to which the Consonant belongs
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
I have to use indefectibly the 11th rule (the present one) in this case, only if Anusvāra is followed by any consonant except "ś, ṣ, s and h". Beginners in the learning of Sanskrit language should not worry about the subtleties below, for the time being at least. Please relax and get a softdrink.
अं (aṁ) + क् (k) = अङ्क् (aṅk) अं (aṁ) + च् (c) = अञ्च् (añc)
To mark, to stamp (aṅk) To honour, to reverence (añc)
And not अंक् (aṁk) (This is not correct at all) And not अंच् (aṁc) (This is not correct at all)

Exceptions

"m" of the prefix "sam" + any form of the root "kṛ" = ṁs (and not ṁ or ṅ) + the initial "k"
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
सम् (sam) + कृतम् (kṛtam) = संस्कृतम् (saṁskṛtam or saṁskṛtam) सम् (sam) + कारः (kāraḥ) = संस्कारः (saṁskāraḥ)
Highly elaborated and polished, etc. (saṁskṛtam or saṁskṛtam) ("sam" is a prefix) --This is the name in Sanskrit of our dear language which we are studying right now-- Any purificatory ceremony, latent impression, etc. (saṁskāraḥ)
Anusvāra may be optionally changed to Anunāsika (m̐)
सम् (sam) + कृतम् (kṛtam) = सँस्कृतम् (sam̐skṛtam) सम् (sam) + कारः (kāraḥ) = सँस्कारः (sam̐skāraḥ)
Highly elaborated and polished, etc. (sam̐skṛtam) ("sam" is a prefix) --This is the name in Sanskrit of our dear language which we are studying right now-- Any purificatory ceremony, latent impression, etc.
(sam̐skāraḥ)
"m" of "pum" + a hard Consonant (except Sibilants) preceding a Vowel, Semivowel, Nasal or "h" = it remains the same or it may be optionally transformed into ṁs + the aforesaid Consonant
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
पुम् (pum) + कामा (kāmā) = पुंस्कामा (puṁskāmā) पुम् (pum) + त्रयम् (trayam) = पुंस्त्रयम् (puṁstrayam)
A woman desirous (kāmā) of a man (pum) Three (trayam) generations (pum)
Anusvāra may be optionally changed to Anunāsika (m̐)
पुम् (pum) + कामा (kāmā) = पुँस्कामा
(pum̐skāmā)
पुम् (pum) + त्रयम् (trayam) = पुँस्त्रयम्
(pum̐strayam)
A woman desirous (kāmā) of a man (pum) Three (trayam) generations (pum)
However...
पुम् (pum) + क्षीरम् (kṣīram) = पुंक्षीरम् (puṁkṣīram) (It does not come under the rule because the Consonant "k" is preceding a Sibilant --which is not a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h"--) पुम् (pum) + ख्यानम् (khyānam) = पुंख्यानम् (puṁkhyānam) (This is a well-known exception, because there are all conditions for the rule to be applied properly)
Milk (kṣīram) for a man (pum) The perception or knowledge (khyānam) of a man (pum)

Next rule now.

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 12th Rule

Pay attention:

12th Rule
When "m" and "n" are not at the end of a "pada" (technical term for any "inflected or declined word"), they are changed into Anusvāra if followed by a consonant (except a Nasal, a Semivowel or "h"). (Note that even though "any word" is generally called "pada", in this case it refers to an inflected word, i.e. a word having undergone any type of declension or conjugation. Careful here!).
Exception: a) This change is optional if "m" is followed by the conjunct "hm". If it is not changed, "m" remains unchanged (i.e. it remains "m").
b) In turn, that very "m" may be optionally turned into "n" if followed by "hn". If not so, "m" is transformed into Anusvāra.
c) In the event of "m" when followed by "hy, hv, hl", then, "m̐y, m̐v, m̐l" (nasalized forms of those three Semivowels) are optionally substituted for "m". If not so, "m" is turned into Anusvāra.

The present Rule should be used together with the 10th Rule, because it is a perfect complement, indeed. You should use the 10th Rule freely, but making sure that you are not violating any premise stated by the 12th Rule. Be careful, then.

Do not panic! It is not so complicated as it seems at first glance. Here you are a simple table showing you how to do the changes:

Table 11
"m" and "n" not at the end of a pada or inflected word
"m" and "n"
+
Any consonant except Nasals, Semivowels and "h"
=
"m" and "n" are transformed into Anusvāra (ṁ)
Exceptions
"m" + "hm" = "m" may be optionally changed to Anusvāra (ṁ) despite "h" is there. If no change is done, "m" remains the same
"m" + "hn" = "m" may be optionally changed to "n". If no change is done, "m" is to be changed to Anusvāra (ṁ)
"m" + "hy", "hv" or "hl" = "m" may be optionally changed to "m̐y", "m̐v" or "m̐l". If no change is done, "m" is to be changed to Anusvāra (ṁ)

A few examples now:

"m" and "n" not at the end of a pada or inflected word

"m" and "n" + any Consonant except Nasals, Semivowels and "h" = "m" and "n" are changed to Anusvāra (ṁ) (this Rule is a perfect complement to the tenth Rule of Consonant Sandhi)
I have marked with green color the resulting combination, when any
किम् (kim) + करोमि (karomi) = किं करोमि (kiṁ karomi) [Note that "kim" is a word but not a "pada" or inflected word. Also note that according to the 11th Rule you could have written किङ्करोमि (kiṅkaromi) optionally too] किम् (kim) + मया कर्तव्यम् (mayā kartavyam) = किम्मया कर्तव्यम् (kimmayā kartavyam) ("m" in "kim" remains the same since "m" in "mayā" is a Nasal; thus, 12th Rule must not be used in this case)
What (kim) do I do (karomi)? What (kim) am I to do (mayā kartavyam)?
आक्रम् (ākram) + स्यते (syate) = आक्रंस्यते (ākraṁsyate) (The termination "sya-te" is added to the root "ākram" --to overcome-- in order to form the proper conjugation in 3rd Person Singular, Future Tense) यशान् (yaśān) + सि (si) = यशांसि (yaśāṁsi) (The example shows how to form the Nominative Plural of a neuter noun ending in "s", in this case "yaśas" --fame--)
He/she will overcome (ākraṁsyate) Fames (yaśāṁsi)
अलीन् (alīn) + दद्मः (dadmaḥ) = अलीन् दद्मः or अलीन्दद्मः (alīn dadmaḥ or alīndadmaḥ) (No substitution occurred because "n" is at the end of a "pada" or inflected word. In this case, the word is the noun "ali" --a bee, specially a black one--, which has been declined in Accusative Plural --alīn--) वनान् (vanān) + गच्छामः (gacchāmaḥ) = वनान् गच्छामः or वनान्गच्छामः (vanān gacchāmaḥ or vanāngacchāmaḥ) (No substitution occurred because "n" is at the end of a "pada" or inflected word. In this case, the word is the noun "vana" --forest, wood--, which has been declined in Accusative Plural --vanān-)
We give (dadmaḥ) (something) to the (black) bees (alīn) We go (gacchāmaḥ) to the forests or woods (vanān)

Exceptions

"m" not at the end of a pada or inflected word + hm = ṁhm or mhm
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
किम् (kim) + ह्मलयिष्यन्ति (hmalayiṣyanti) = किंह्मलयिष्यन्ति or किम्ह्मलयिष्यन्ति (kiṁhmalayiṣyanti or kimhmalayiṣyanti)
What (kim) will they shake (hmalayiṣyanti)?

"m" not at the end of a pada or inflected word + hn = nhn or ṁhn
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
किम् (kim) + ह्नोष्यन्ते (hnoṣyante) = किन्ह्नोष्यन्ते or किंह्नोष्यन्ते (kinhnoṣyante or kiṁhnoṣyante)
What (kim) will they conceal (hnoṣyante)?

"m" not at the end of a pada or inflected word + "hy", "hv", "hl" = "m̐yhy", "m̐vhv", "m̐lhl" or "ṁhy", "ṁhv", "ṁhl"
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
किम् (kim) + ह्यः (hyaḥ) = किँय्ह्यः or किंह्यः (kim̐yhyaḥ or kiṁhyaḥ)
What (kim)! Yesterday (hyaḥ)!
किम् (kim) + ह्वयति (hvayati) = किँव्ह्वयति or किंह्वयति (kim̐vhvayati or kiṁhvayati)
What (kim) does he/she summon (hvayati)?
किम् (kim) + ह्लादयामः (hlādayāmaḥ) = किँल्ह्लादयामः or किंह्लादयामः (kim̐lhlādayāmaḥ or kiṁhlādayāmaḥ)
What (kim) do we refresh or gladden (hlādayāmaḥ)?

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 13th Rule

This is set of six Rules joined together in just one. Take it easy, friend, because it is going to hurt... a little:

13th Rule
(1st sub-rule) If a consonant is followed by another consonant of the same kind (except Nasals, Semivowels and "h"), it may be optionally dropped.
(2nd sub-rule) If a consonant belonging to any of the first five classes --Guttural, Palatal, Cerebral, Dental and Labial-- (except "ñ") comes after a Semivowel, the former is optionally doubled.
(3rd sub-rule) If a consonant (except "h") comes after a vowel and is not followed by one (i.e. by a vowel), it is optionally doubled.
(4th sub-rule) If a consonant belonging to any of the first five classes (except Nasals and, of course, the soft unaspirate consonants --i.e. "g, j, ḍ, d and b"--) is followed by a soft unaspirate or aspirate consonant (i.e. g, gh, j, jh, ḍ, ḍh, d, dh, b or bh) is to be transformed into the soft unaspirate consonant of its class (i.e. g, j, ḍ, d or b, respectively). This sub-rule is a complement to the 5th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.
(5th sub-rule) A Semivowel is optionally doubled when preceded by a consonant belonging to any of the first five classes (i.e. Gutturals, Palatals, Cerebrals, Dentals and Labials), except "ñ".
(6th sub-rule) If a consonant (except "h") comes after "r" or "h" preceded by a vowel, is optionally doubled. This is a complement to the previous second sub-rule.

I have summarized all in the following table. Calm down, please!:

Table 12
First sub-rule
Any consonant
+
A consonant of the same kind (except Nasals, Semivowels and "h")
=
The first consonant may be optionally dropped and only the second one remains
Second sub-rule
A Semivowel + k, kh, g, gh, ṅ, c, ch, j, jh, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh or m ("ñ" not included) = k, kh, g, gh, ṅ, c, ch, j, jh, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh or m ("ñ" not included) is optionally doubled
Third sub-rule
A vowel + A consonant (except "h") not being followed by any vowel = The consonant is optionally doubled
Fourth sub-rule (a complement to the 5th Rule of Consonant Sandhi)
k, kh, gh, c, ch, jh, ṭ, ṭh, ḍh, t, th, dh, p, ph, or bh + g, gh, j, jh, ḍ, ḍh, d, dh, b or bh = The former must be changed to the soft unaspirate consonant of its class (e.g. "dh" + "dh" = "ddh")
Fifth sub-rule
k, kh, g, gh, ṅ, c, ch, j, jh, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh or m ("ñ" not included) + A Semivowel = The Semivowel is optionally doubled
Sixth sub-rule (a complement to the 2nd sub-rule)
"r" or "h", both of them preceded by a vowel + Any consonant (except "h") = The latter is optionally doubled

A few examples now in order to make sure that you have understood everything in a proper way:

1st sub-rule: Any consonant + a consonant of the same kind (except Nasals, Semivowels and "h") = the first consonant may be optionally dropped
I have not marked anything with green color because there is no combination at all, except one consonant being dropped
I choose not to omit "d" in "ddh" I choose to use the 13th rule (the present one) in the "ddh" conjunct; as a result, "d" is being dropped
राम (rāma) + ऋद्धिः (ṛddhiḥ) = रामर्द्धिः (rāmarddhiḥ) ("a" + "ṛ" = "ar" according to the 2nd Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi) राम (rāma) + ऋद्धिः (ṛddhiḥ) = रामर्द्धिः (rāmarddhiḥ) [("a" + "ṛ" = "ar" according to the 2nd Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi). And now I choose to exclude "d" in "ddh" by using the present sub-rule: रामर्धिः (rāmardhiḥ)]
The prosperity (ṛddhiḥ) of Rāma (rāma) The prosperity (ṛddhiḥ) of Rāma (rāma)
Very important: You may wonder why I needed to combine "ṛddhiḥ" with another word in order to optionally drop "d" in the "ddh" conjunct. Well, the answer is as follows: The optional dropping stated by the 1st sub-rule of the 13th Rule is usually utilized when a conjunct of three or more consonants ("rddh" in this case) is formed after joining two words together. The goal is to simplify the resulting compound (e.g. "rddh" may be optionally changed to "rdh", which is shorter). Got my point? Note that "ddh" is a conjunct consisting of two consonants ("d" and "dh"). It is not formed from three consonants ("d", "d" and "h"). Careful here!
I could have used the 6th sub-rule instead
राम (rāma) + ऋद्धिः (ṛddhiḥ) = रामर्द्धिः (rāmarddhiḥ) [("a" + "ṛ" = "ar" according to the 2nd Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi). And now I choose to double "d" in "ddh" by using the sixth sub-rule: रामर्द्द्धिः (rāmardddhiḥ)]
The prosperity (ṛddhiḥ) of Rāma (rāma)
Granted, the sixth sub-rule is rarely used in conjuncts formed from three or more consonants because too many consonants would be piled up. The first sub-rule is preferable then, since it shortens the long conjuncts. However, many times none of the two sub-rules is used and the original conjuncts remain unchanged.
2nd sub-rule: A Semivowel + k, kh, g, gh, ṅ, c, ch, j, jh, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh or m ("ñ" not included) = k, kh, g, gh, ṅ, c, ch, j, jh, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh or m ("ñ" not included) is optionally doubled
I have marked with green color the resulting combination, when any
I choose not to use the current sub-rule I choose to use it and double the consonant
पुनर् (punar) + जातः (jātaḥ) = पुनर्जातः (punarjātaḥ) पुनर् (punar) + जातः (jātaḥ) = पुनर्ज्जातः (punarjjātaḥ)
A man who is born (jātaḥ) again (punar) A man who is born (jātaḥ) again (punar)
3rd sub-rule: A vowel + a consonant (except "h") not being followed by any vowel = the consonant is optionally doubled
I have marked with green color the resulting combination, when any
I choose not to use the current sub-rule I choose to use it and double the consonant
शुचि (śuci) + अवस्था (avasthā) = शुच्यवस्था (śucyavasthā) ("i" + "a" = "ya" according to the 4th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi) शुचि (śuci) + अवस्था (avasthā) = शुच्यवस्था (śucyavasthā) [("i" + "a" = "ya" according to the 4th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi), and now I use the present sub-rule and double "c" (which is preceded by a vowel and not followed by any vowel):] शुच्च्यवस्था (śuccyavasthā)
A pure (śuci) state or condition (avasthā) A pure (śuci) state or condition (avasthā)
This sub-rule is not generally used in single words (e.g. "siddhi" --perfection-- being transformed into "sidddhi") because it would be absurd. It is utilized (rarely, indeed) when two words are combined to form a compound and all conditions are favorable to do the respective changes.
4th sub-rule: k, kh, gh, c, ch, jh, ṭ, ṭh, ḍh, t, th, dh, p, ph or bh + g, gh, j, jh, ḍ, ḍh, d, dh, b or bh = the first consonant must be transformed into the soft unaspirate consonant of its class
I have marked with green color the resulting combination, when any
I choose not to use the current sub-rule I choose to use it, but firstly I am bound to utilize the 3rd sub-rule
बोधि (bodhi) + अङ्गम् (aṅgam) = बोध्यङ्गम् (bodhyaṅgam) ("i" + "a" = "ya" according to the 4th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi. At this point I decide not to use any further optional rule or sub-rule and consequently, the Sandhi process stops here) बोधि (bodhi) + अङ्गम् (aṅgam) = बोध्यङ्गम् (bodhyaṅgam) [("i" + "a" = "ya" according to the 4th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi). At this point I decide to use the previous 3rd sub-rule, which is optional. Thus, "dh" is changed to "dhdh": बोध्ध्यङ्गम् (bodhdhyaṅgam). Now, I use the present sub-rule and transform the first "dh" in "dhdh" into "d" --the respective soft unaspirate--: बोद्ध्यङ्गम् (boddhyaṅgam)]
A requisite (aṅgam) for attaining Perfect Knowledge or Wisdom (bodhi) A requisite (aṅgam) for attaining Perfect Knowledge or Wisdom (bodhi)
5th sub-rule: k, kh, g, gh, ṅ, c, ch, j, jh, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh or m ("ñ" not included) + a Semivowel = the Semivowel is optionally doubled
I have marked with green color the resulting combination, when any
बोधि (bodhi) + अङ्गम् (aṅgam) = बोध्यङ्गम् (bodhyaṅgam) [("i" + "a" = "ya" according to the 4th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi). At this point I decide not to use any further optional rule or sub-rule and consequently, the Sandhi process stops here] बोधि (bodhi) + अङ्गम् (aṅgam) = बोध्यङ्गम् (bodhyaṅgam) [("i" + "a" = "ya" according to the 4th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi). At this point I decide to use the present sub-rule and transform the "y" into "yy": बोध्य्यङ्गम् (bodhyyaṅgam)]
A requisite (aṅgam) for attaining Perfect Knowledge or Wisdom (bodhi) A requisite (aṅgam) for attaining Perfect Knowledge or Wisdom (bodhi)
As you can see, I have used the same example as before (in the fourth sub-rule), but this time I chose to double the Semivowel "y".
Thus, an only compound such as बोध्यङ्गम् (bodhyaṅgam) may either remain the same (no further change is done, "Thank God, this course of action is mostly taken!, haha!") or be changed to बोद्ध्यङ्गम् (boddhyaṅgam) (according to the 4th sub-rule) or बोध्य्यङ्गम् (bodhyyaṅgam) (according to the 5th sub-rule). Relax and get a Pepsi!
6th sub-rule: "r" or "h" preceded by a vowel + any consonant (except "h") = the second consonant
is optionally doubled

I have marked with green color the resulting combination, when any
हरि (hari) + अङ्गम् (aṅgam) = हर्यङ्गम् (haryaṅgam) [("i" + "a" = "ya" according to the 4th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi). At this point I decide not to use any further optional rule or sub-rule and consequently, the Sandhi process stops here] हरि (hari) + अङ्गम् (aṅgam) = हर्यङ्गम् (haryaṅgam) [("i" + "a" = "ya" according to the 4th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi). At this point I decide to use the present sub-rule and turn "y" into "yy": हर्य्यङ्गम् (haryyaṅgam)]
The body (aṅgam) of Hari --an epithet of Lord Viṣṇu-- (hari) The body (aṅgam) of Hari --an epithet of Lord Viṣṇu-- (hari)

It takes some time getting used to Sanskrit Sandhi, but its study will give plenty of good fruits because if you do not know the Rules of Sandhi, you will be unable to translate properly despite your perfect knowledge of declension of nouns, verb conjugation, syntax and son on. Keep striving to study and understand the Rules of Sandhi. It is worth your effort, trust me.

Ah!, be in a good mood so that the process of learning may be less hard.

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 14th Rule

This is a short but important Rule indeed:

14th Rule
If "n" at the end of a word is followed by "ś", then, a "t" is optionally inserted between them. After this optional insertion, you may have to use other Rules in order to polish the Sandhi or combination.

Quite simple! Look at the following table:

Table 13
"n" at the end of a word + initial "ś"
"n"
+
"ś"
=
"ntś" (This is optional, of course; that is, I might choose to leave "n + ś" without inserting any "t" in between). After this optional combination, if "ś" is followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h", you have the choice to use other Rules to polish the Sandhi (specifically the 9th Rule and the first sub-rule of the 4th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). These changes are optional, but they are commonly used. The "ntś" conjunct could be left as such, but this is not done usually. Here you are the procedure to be followed... should you decide to insert "t" in between, obviously:
"ntś" is firstly turned into "ntch" (by the 9th Rule of Consonant Sandhi). Then, "t" is changed to "c" according to the first sub-rule of the 4th Rule of Consonant Sandhi [sub-section a)]. Thus, the resulting conjunct is: "ncch". You have to make now a last change. By the first sub-rule of the 4th Rule of Consonant Sandhi [sub-section b)], "n" must be transformed into "ñ". So, the final conjunct is as follows: "ñcch". Besides, "c" might be optionally dropped by the first sub-rule of the 13th Rule of Consonant Sandhi. Thus, the conjunct is reduced to "ñch". Well, here you are a summary of the procedure:"ntś" is turned into "ntch"... "ntch" is changed to "ncch"... "ncch" is transformed into "ñcch"... "c" may be optionally dropped... "ñch". Therefore, there are two final forms for "ntś" conjunct: "ñcch" and "ñch".

A few examples now:

final "n" + "ś" = "ntś" or "ñcch" - "ñch" (this change is obviously optional; besides, the further transformation into "ñcch" or "ñch" is also optional and it occurs only if "ś" is followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h" --See 9th Rule of Consonant Sandhi--)
I have marked with green color the resulting combination, when any
I choose to use the present Rule, but "ntś" will remain unchanged. There are two reasons supporting my decision: a) Either "ś" is not followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h" and thus I cannot use the 9th Rule of Consonant Sandhi (and consequently the 4th Rule cannot be utilized either), or b) I just do not want to change anything. Even though the last course of action is absolutely valid, it is rarely seen. I choose to use the present Rule. Besides, I want to polish the conjunct ("ntś") through 9th and 4th Rules of Consonant Sandhi (one following the other) for a consistent reason: "ś" is actually followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h", which allows me to utilize the 9th Rule of Consonant Sandhi (the use of the 4th Rule follows as a natural consequence). This course of action is both valid and commonly seen.
सन् (san) + शिवः (śivaḥ) = सन्त्शिवः (santśivaḥ) (Note that "t" is inserted and no further changes occur despite "ś" meets the requirements demanded by the 9th Rule of Consonant Sandhi, i.e. "ś" must be followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h". This is so, because I chose not to change anything) सन् (san) + शिवः (śivaḥ) = सञ्च्छिवः (sañcchivaḥ) or सञ्छिवः (sañchivaḥ) (Note that "t" is inserted, and after that several changes occur since "ś" meets the requirements demanded by the 9th Rule of Consonant Sandhi, i.e. "ś" must be followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h". The use of 4th Rule is a natural consequence of changing "ś" to "ch")
Śiva (śivaḥ) existing forever (san) Śiva (śivaḥ) existing forever (san)
द्रवान् (dravān) + श्चोतति (ścotati) = द्रवान्त्श्चोतति (dravāntścotati) (Note that "t" is inserted and no further changes occur --although I would have wished so-- because "ś" does not meet the requirements demanded by the 9th Rule of Consonant Sandhi, i.e. "ś" is not followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h") No further change or polish is possible in this case because "ś" in "śc" does not meet the requierements of the 9th Rule of Consonant Sandhi (i.e. "ś" is not followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h")
He/she/it distills or sprinkles (ścotati) fluids (dravān) --
Of course, you might have chosen not to use the current 14th Rule of Consonant Sandhi (which is optional). Therefore, "n" + "ś" = "nś", simple! Pay attention:
सन् (san) + शिवः (śivaḥ) = सन्शिवः or सन् शिवः (sanśivaḥ or san śivaḥ)
द्रवान् (dravān) + श्चोतति (ścotati) = द्रवान्श्चोतति or द्रवान् श्चोतति (dravānścotati or dravān ścotati)

Next Rule now.

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 15th Rule

A very important rule consisting of two sub-rules, which are often used indeed. Listen:

15th Rule
(1st sub-rule) When "ḍ" or "n" at the end of word are followed by "s", "dh" (disguised as "t") may be optionally inserted in between. Note that, in the first case, you will have to turn the resulting conjunct "ḍts" into "ṭts" by the 5th Rule of Consonant Sandhi. This sub-rule is a perfect complement to the 7th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.
(2nd sub-rule) When "ṅ", "ṇ" or "n" are at the end of a word and preceded by a short vowel, they must be doubled if followed by a vowel.

Quite simple! Look at the following table:

Table 14
First sub-rule
"ḍ" or "n" at the end of a word
+
"s"
=
"ḍts" (changed to "ṭts" by the 5th Rule of Consonant Sandhi) or "nts", respectively. This is optional, of course. This sub-rule is a complement to the 7th Rule of Consonant Sandhi
Second sub-rule
"ṅ", "ṇ" or "n" situated at the end of a word and preceded by a short vowel + a vowel = "ṅṅ" or "ṇṇ" or "nn" + a vowel. This is not optional but obligatory

A few examples now. Take it easy, it could have been worse, hehe!:

1st sub-rule: "ḍ" or "n" at the end of a word + s = ḍts (changed to "ṭts" by the 5th Rule of Consonant Sandhi) or "nts", respectively (This is optional)
I have marked with green color the resulting combination, when any
I choose not to use the present sub-rule I choose to use the present sub-rule
षड् (ṣaḍ) + सेनाः (senāḥ) = षट्सेनाः (ṣaṭsenāḥ) ("ḍ" was changed to "ṭ" according to the 5th Rule of Consonant Sandhi) षड् (ṣaḍ) + सेनाः (senāḥ) = षट्त्सेनाः (ṣaṭtsenāḥ) ("ḍ" was changed to "ṭ" according to the 5th Rule of Consonant Sandhi)
Six (ṣaḍ) armies (senāḥ) Six (ṣaḍ) armies (senāḥ)
तस्मिन् (tasmin) + सूर्ये (sūrye) = तस्मिन्सूर्ये or तस्मिन् सूर्ये (tasminsūrye or tasmin sūrye) [Note that the final "n" in "tasmin" has not been turned into Anusvāra despite it is before a consonant ("s"), because it is at the end of a pada or inflected word ("tasmin" is the locative singular of "tat" --that--). Be careful here! See 12th Rule of Consonant Sandhi for more information] तस्मिन् (tasmin) + सूर्ये (sūrye) = तस्मिन्त्सूर्ये (tasmintsūrye) [Note that the final "n" in "tasmin" has not been turned into Anusvāra despite it is before a consonant ("t"), because it is at the end of a pada or inflected word ("tasmin" is the locative singular of "tat" --that--). Be careful here! See 12th Rule of Consonant Sandhi for more information]
In that (tasmin) sun (sūrye) In that (tasmin) sun (sūrye)
2nd sub-rule: "ṅ", "ṇ" or "n" at the end of a word and preceded by a short vowel + a vowel = the former must be obligatorily doubled (i.e. "ṅṅ", "ṇṇ" and "nn")
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
प्रत्यङ् (pratyaṅ) + आत्मा (ātmā) = प्रत्यङ्ङात्मा (pratyaṅṅātmā) (The word "pratyaṅ" is derived from "pratyañc". It is used when "pratyañc" is followed by a soft letter (all vowels except "ḥ"; soft consonants in Guttural, Palatal, Cerebral, Dental and Labial groups; Semivowels and "h", are soft letters. See Alphabet) योगिन् (yogin) + अत्र (atra) = योगिन्नत्र (yoginnatra)
The inner (pratyaṅ) Self (ātmā) Oh Yogī (yogin), here (atra)!

The last Rule of this document now.

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 16th Rule

This is a crucial Rule. It is used very often:

16th Rule
The consonant "s" belonging to either a Substitute (i.e., when "s" is intended to be substituted in order to form inflected forms) or a Termination is obligatorily changed to "ṣ" when preceded by a Vowel (except "a" and "ā"), a Semivowel, a Guttural or "h". Besides, if "s" is followed by the Vowels "ṛ" or "ṝ", or the consonant "r", "s" remains unchanged (in short, "s" + "ṛ", "ṝ" or "r" = "sṛ", "sṝ" or "sr"), that is, the present Rule is not valid. Theorically, this Rule accepts any of the remaining consonants following "s", but as a matter of fact all soft consonants (the rest of Semivowels included) and Sibilants are generally excluded. If these consonants appear, the Rules of Visarga Sandhi along with other Rules of Consonant Sandhi are used instead. So, only the ten hard consonants (k, kh, c, ch, ṭ, ṭh, t, th, p and ph) might theorically follow "s", but you must be careful here when using this Rule in order not to conflict other Rules of Consonant or Visarga Sandhi. You will find that the current Rule works complementarily with some Rules governing the combination of a final "s" or Visarga. Here you are the list of Rules mainly working as a complement to the present Rule:
1) Consonant Sandhi: a) The third sub-rule of the 2nd Rule; and b) The 4th Rule;
2) Visarga Sandhi: The 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th Rules. This Rule is valid even if an Anusvāra substituted for "n", a Visarga or a Sibilant (ś, ṣ, s) intervene [i.e. even if they are situated between "s" and the preceding Vowel (except "a" and "ā"), Semivowel, Guttural or "h"]. The present Rule is commonly used only within a single word. (Note that an affix or a termination added to a word are not considered a second "separate" word really, because the final result after adding them to it is again a single word).

Quite simple! Look at the following table:

Table 15
"s" preceded by a Vowel (except "a" and "ā"), a Semivowel, a Guttural or "h", even if Anusvāra substituted for "n", Visarga or a Sibilant intervene
+
any Vowel (except "ṛ or ṝ), "k, kh, c, ch, ṭ, ṭh, t, th, p or ph" (but be careful not to conflict other Sandhi Rules and remember that some Rules will be the perfect complement to this one you are studying right now. One more thing: "s" before "r" forms simply "sr")
=
"s" is obligatorily changed to "ṣ"

A few examples now:

"s" preceded by a Vowel (except "a" and "ā"), a Semivowel, a Guttural or "h" (even if Anusvāra substituted for "n", Visarga or a Sibilant intervene) + any Vowel (except "ṛ" and "ṝ"), any Consonant except soft consonants --Semivowels included-- and Sibilants, that is, only "k, kh, c, ch, ṭ, ṭh, t, th, p and ph" may follow "s"... be careful not to conflict any other Rules of Consonant or Visarga Sandhi... besides some Rules will work complementarily with the present one... one more thing: "s" before "r" forms simply "sr" = "s" is obligatorily changed to "ṣ"
I have marked with green color the resulting combination, when any
योगे (yoge) + सु (su) = योगेषु (yogeṣu) (This is how the locative plural of "yoga" is formed. Note that "su" is a termination) हविस् (havis) + (i) = हविषि (haviṣi) (This is how the locative singular of "havis" is formed)
In the Yoga-s (yogeṣu) In the oblation (haviṣi)
ति (ti) + स्था (sthā) + मि (mi) = तिष्ठामि (tiṭhāmi) (Note that the original "th" in "sthā" is turned into "ṭh" according to the 22nd Rule of Consonant Sandhi) चक्षुस् (cakṣus) + (ā) = चक्षुषा (cakṣuā) (This is how the instrumental singular of "cakṣus" is formed. Note that "ā" is a termination)
I stand, stay, remain, etc. (tiṣṭhāmi) By (or with) the eye (caksuṣā)
This Rule may be used even if Anusvāra substituted for "n", Visarga or a Sibilant (ś, ṣ, s) intervene
चक्षून् (cakṣūn) + सि (si) = चक्षूंषि (cakṣūṁi) (The word "cakṣūṁṣi" is used in nominative, accusative and vocative plural of the noun "cakṣus" --eye--. Note that even though "ṁ" is between the vowel "ū" and the original consonant "s", the Rule is still valid) पिपठीष् (pipaṭhīṣ) + सु (su) = पिपठीष्षु (pipaṭhīṣu) (This is how the locative plural of "pipaṭhīṣ" --a bow-- is formed. Note that even though "ṣ" is between the vowel "ī" and the original consonant "s", the Rule is still valid)
The eyes (or else, "to the eyes" or "oh, eyes!") (cakṣūṁṣi) In the bows (pipaṭhīṣṣu)
हविस् (havis) + सु (su) = हविःषु or हविष्षु (haviḥu or haviṣu) (This is how the locative plural of "havis" --oblation-- is formed. Note that 1) the final "s" in "havis" was turned into Visarga by the 1st Rule of Visarga Sandhi; 2) Or else, you may transform the final "s" in "havis" into "ṣ" by the second sub-rule of the 4th Rule of Consonant Sandhi. In spite of what you choose to do, the Rule is still valid with "ḥ" or "ṣ" intervening)
In the oblations (haviḥṣu or haviṣṣu)
Now you will see some examples in which the present Rule cannot be used
शिव (śiva) + अस्य (asya) = शिवस्य (śivasya) [This is how the genitive singular of "Śiva" is formed. Note that the final "a" in Śiva has been replaced by the termination "asya". See Declension (1) for more information. The Rule could not be used because "s" is preceded by "a"] मनान् (manān) + सि (si) = मनांसि (manāṁsi) [This is how the nominative, accusative and vocative plural of "manas" --mind-- is formed. The Rule could not be used because "s" is preceded by "ā" despite the Anusvāra (ṁ) between them]
Of Śiva (śivasya) The minds (or else, "to the minds" or "oh, minds!") (manāṁsi)
तिसृ (tisṛ) + सु (su) = तिसृषु (tisṛu) [This is how the locative case of "tisṛ" ("three" --feminine--) is formed. Note that the first "s" remained unaffected by the presente Rule because it is followed by "ṛ". However, "s" in "su" changed to "ṣ" because it met the requirements of the present Rule] चक्षुस् (cakṣus) + भिः (bhiḥ) = चक्षुर्भिः (cakṣurbhiḥ) (This is how the instrumental plural of "cakṣus" --eye-- is formed. Note that I could not use the current Rule because "s" is followed by a soft consonant (bh). Thus, "s" changed to "r" by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi)
In the three (tisṛṣu) --feminine gender-- By (or with) the eyes (cakṣurbhiḥ)
दीर्घायुस् (dīrghāyus) + आगच्छति (āgacchati) = दीर्घायुरागच्छति (dīrghāyurāgacchati) and not दीर्घायुषागच्छति (dīrghāyuṣāgacchati) [Final "s" in "dīrghāyus" is to be changed to "r" by the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi and not to "ṣ" by the current Rule, because "dīrghāyus" and "āgacchati" are two separate and independent words]
A long-lived person (dīrghāyus) is coming (āgacchati)
A final example showing "s" not belonging to a Substitute or a Termination
"s" in बिस (bisa) --a fiber of lotus-- remains unaffected despite any kind of declensions, etc. (e.g. बिसाय। बिसे "bisāya, bise", etc., and not बिषाय। बिषे "biṣāya, biṣe", etc.), because it does not act either as a Substitute or a Termination. In other words, "s" in "bisa" belongs to the word entirely and does not undergo any substitution like in words such as "havis", "cakṣus", etc. (which have been used as examples above). Besides, "bisa" is not a Termination either.

Oh my God, my intellect is about to explode! Sandhi is a good training four our lazy intellects really, hehe! And now the concluding remarks.

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 Concluding remarks

It has been a long and wearing document, but I am glad because my effort has not been in vain. Now, you have essential information so that your study of Sanskrit language may go on in a proper manner. Sandhi Rules are primordial and crucial since the vast majority of Sanskrit words has to undergo a kind of metamorphosis before being inserted into a sentence. If you do not know how the metamorphosis was carried out in order to trace back the original words, you will never be able to translate any text in Sanskrit. That is why, I have to keep urging you to study Sandhi Rules however hard and tiring it may apparently be. As you study the Rules, you will note that it is a cool medicine to cure the terrible disease known as "intellectual sloth".

Next document will deal with the remaining Rules of Consonant Sandhi. See you there!

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 Further information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.