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 Learning Sanskrit - Writing

How to write in Sanskrit


 Introduction

Well, you have learnt in the series of First Steps documents some important things about Sanskrit. And now you will learn how to write in Sanskrit. Even though you do not know grammar enough to make sentences by yourself, you can learn how to "draw" Sanskrit characters. Besides, you will learn how to join them together in order to form words.

Let us get down to work!

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 How to write in Sanskrit (Part 1)

First Steps

You must have the Sanskrit Alphabet at hand. If possible, you should print it out, because you will need it on many other occasions. Besides, have Transliterating (2) (English) (Transliteration) at hand (please, print it if you can) because you will need it too.

First of all, go to First strokes 1 and First strokes 2 in order to learn how to draw every Sanskrit character. Besides, Tables is another useful document you may use as a complement to the present one.

Very well. You see about 50 original letters in the Alphabet, but there are a lot more. These new letters are the Conjuncts, and they are formed from two or more original letters. Despite the Conjuncts will be analyzed later, have the Conjuncts document at hand, because you will need it. Print it if you can.

One writes Sanskrit just as English: left-right and up-down. The horizontal stroke is drawn at the end (except when one or more strokes are on top of it; in this case that stroke or those strokes are drawn at the end). For example, the letter "ta": (firstly the hook, secondly the vertical stroke and at the end the horizontal stroke). No mistery about this process. It is very simple. But regarding the letters with stroke/s on the horizontal line such as the vowel "ai": (the stroke on top of the horizontal line is drawn after it, at the end).

Sanskrit Alphabet is "syllabic". In a word, consonants are accompanied with a vowel. In Sanskrit Alphabet, this vowel is the "a". Without any vowels the consonants cannot be pronounced. The vertical stroke is the "a", so if you remove it, the consonant is deprived of its "a". Look: - Vowel = त् ("ta" minus "a" = "t"). It is very simple. You may do the same process with every consonant with a vertical stroke (except "ka" and "pha"). In fact, do it right now (remember, write left-right, up-down; the horizontal stroke is drawn at the end). As a remarkable exception, even though the "la" may appear not to have a vertical stroke, it has. Look: ("la") is turned into l ("l") when the "a" is removed.

The consonants "ka" and "pha" are deprived of the "a" by simply shortening the curved stroke. Look: - "a" = k ("ka" minus "a" = "k") and - "a" = ph ("pha" minus "a" = "ph"). Note the shortening of the curved stroke in both "k" and "ph" respectively.

However you may wonder: what about those consonants without any vertical stroke? Very good question. The answer is: you must use a nether stroke known as "Virāma": Virāma

It is very easy to use Virāma. For example: - "a" = ठ् ("ṭha" minus "a" = "ṭh"). Very simple. Another example: - "a" = ढ् ("ḍha" minus "a" = "ḍh"). And now, try to remove the "a" by adding Virāma to the consonants without any vertical stroke (except "ra"). The special behaviour of the "ra" will be explained later.

The Virāma is also used in a final consonant when it belongs to a word placed at the end of a sentence. If that consonant is at the end of a single word (standing alone), the Virāma is to be utilized too. But if the final consonant does not belong to a word placed at the end of a sentece, it is not generally used, except when chosen by the writer. Let us see three examples:

tat + sukham = that + happiness

When they are joined together:

तत्सुखम् = tatsukham

Here you can see two examples at the same time. Firstly, "ma" () has a Virāma because it is at the end of the sentence. So, "ma" () is turned into "m" (म्). In turn, since the "t" (a "ta" -- without "a") is in the middle of the sentence, is written simply without its vertical stroke and joined the second word "sukham" (सुखम्). Thus, "ta" () is turned into "t" and no Virāma is used.

However, the writer of this sentece could have chosen to use Virāma in both of cases:

तत् सुखम् = tat sukham

You can see two Virāma-s added to "ta" () and "ma" (). Thus, both of letters are turned into "t" (त्) and "m" (म्), respectively. But Virāma is generally added to the last consonant of a word placed at the end of a sentence or standing alone. For example: if I want to write only the aforesaid word "tat" (that), I have always to use Virāma:

तत् = tat (I cannot write this way: tat --by simply removing the vertical line from "ta"--).

Well, those are the easy-to-remember rules about Virāma. Go to Examples of Part 1 and practice over and over again.

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 Conjuncts

A Conjunct is simply a group of consonants. All consonants of a Conjunct lack "a" except the last one. Of course, the last consonant can take any vowel apart from "a", but this vowel is always used to make "standard" Conjuncts. A Conjunct is composed of up to five consonants generally. (Go to Conjuncts document)

We could say that there are 4 groups of Conjuncts, the first one having 3 subgroups:

Conjuncts with their component elements fully discernible

  1. Conjuncts formed from several consonants written successively without piling up.
  2. Conjuncts formed from several consonants which are simply piled up.
  3. Mixture.

Conjuncts with their component elements slightly discernible

Conjuncts formed from several consonants merged in each other to a certain extent. The consonants are hardly discernible.

Conjuncts with their component elements undiscernible

Conjuncts formed from several consonants fully merged in each other and forming an entirely new letter. The consonants are undiscernible.

Conjuncts with "ra"

These Conjuncts will be specially studied later. Therefore, no example will be given now.

And now go to the Examples of Conjuncts in order to keep learning.

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 How to write in Sanskrit (Part 2)

Vowels (Simple)

You will learn now how to add other vowels apart from "a" to the consonants. Firstly, I will explain to you how to add "simple" vowels (short and long). Simple vowels are: a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, ṛ, ṝ, ḷ, ṁ, ḥ. The rest is "Diphthongs". Go to Tables for further help when you need it.

Most vowels you can see on the Sanskrit Alphabet document are used in the beginning of a word. In short, these vowels have no consonants previously. Just two vowels (ḥ --Visarga-- and ṁ --Anusvāra--) are never placed in the first place because they need vowel support to be pronounced. But when the vowels are not placed in the beginning; in short, when they come after a consonant, how should they be written? Will we have to write the "huge" signs found on the Sanskrit Alphabet document over and over again? Not at all, thank God! Every vowel has a respective abbreviation to be used after a consonant.

Let us get down to work!

How to add "ā" after consonant

You do not need to add "a" because this vowel is already included in every Sanskrit consonant, which are syllabic. But you need to learn how to add "ā". It is very easy; simply add a vertical stroke. Look:

mā = ma + ā (there is no "āa" or "āā"; double "a" is the limit) = + Vowel = मा

kā = ka + ā = + Vowel = का

Go to Examples of Part 2.

How to add "i" after consonant

And now "i" after a consonant: You must add the following character Vowel before the consonant. Look:

mi = ma + i ("a" is annulled automatically when you insert "i", you do not need to remove the vertical stroke or add Virāma) = + Vowel = मि ("i" is placed before)

ki = ka + i = + Vowel = कि

And so on. However, you must remember the following: since "i" after consonant is indicated by a character placed on the left of the consonant, when you add "i" to a Conjunct, the Conjunct should be treated as if it was just one consonant. For instance:

nti = n + ta + i = nta + i = न्त + Vowel = न्ति and not ("i" only affecting "ta")

Another example of this case:

mpi = m + pa + i = mpa + i = म्प + Vowel = म्पि and not

"i" after consonant is the only character placed on the left of the consonant. So, no more problems about Conjuncts with the rest of vowels.

Go to Examples of Part 2 again.

How to add "ī" after consonant

In order to add "ī", simply insert the following character after the consonant: Vowel

mī = ma + ī = + Vowel = मी

kī = ka + ī = + Vowel = की

Go to Examples of Part 2 again.

How to add "u" after consonant

In order to add "u", simply insert the following character below the consonant:   u - after consonant

When the consonant has vertical stroke, put the character on the tip of that stroke. If the consonant has no vertical stroke, just add it below.

mu = ma + u = +  u - after consonant = मु

du = da + u = +  u - after consonant = दु

ṭu = ṭa + u = +  u - after consonant = टु

Exception: in "ra" the "u" is inserted in a different way:

ru = ra + u = +  u - after consonant = रु

Go to Examples of Part 2 again.

How to add "ū" after consonant

In order tu add "ū", simply insert the following character below the consonant:   ū - after consonant

When the consonant has vertical stroke, put the character on the tip of that stroke. If the consonant has no vertical stroke, just add it below.

mū = ma + ū = +  ū - after consonant = मू

dū = da + ū = +  ū - after consonant = दू

ṭū = ṭa + ū = +  ū - after consonant = टू

Exception: in "ra" the "ū" is inserted in a different way:

rū = ra + ū = +  ū - after consonant = रू

Go to Examples of Part 2 again.

How to add "ṛ" vowel after consonant

In order tu add "ṛ", simply insert the following character below the consonant:   ṛ - after consonant

When the consonant has vertical stroke, put the character on the tip of that stroke. If the consonant has no vertical stroke, just add it below.

mṛ = ma + ṛ = +  ṛ - after consonant = मृ

kṛ = ka + ṛ = +  ṛ - after consonant = कृ

ḍṛ = ḍa + ṛ = +  ṛ - after consonant = डृ

Exception: the "ha". Look how "ṛ" is to be inserted in "ha":

hṛ = ha + ṛ = +  ṛ - after consonant = हृ

Go to Examples of Part 2 again.

How to add "ṝ" vowel after consonant

In order tu add "ṝ", simply insert the following character below the consonant:   ṝ - after consonant

When the consonant has vertical stroke, put the character on the tip of that stroke. If the consonant has no vertical stroke, just add it below.

kṝ = ka + ṝ = +  ṝ - after consonant = कॄ

pṝ = pa + ṝ = +  ṝ - after consonant = पॄ

tṝ = ta + ṝ = +  ṝ - after consonant = तॄ

Go to Examples of Part 2 again.

How to add "ḷ" vowel after consonant

In order tu add "ḷ", simply insert the following character below the consonant:   ḷ - after consonant. However, do not worry because there are very very few words using that character.

When the consonant has vertical stroke, put the character on the tip of that stroke. If the consonant has no vertical stroke, just add it below.

Just one consonant to give as example:

kḷ = ka + ḷ = कॢ kḷ

Go to Examples of Part 2 again.

How to add "ṁ" vowel (Anusvāra) after consonant

In order to add Anusvāra (ṁ), just insert the following character right over the vertical stroke: Anusvāra

In case of little space, just push it to the right. Use always common sense.

kaṁ = ka + ṁ = + Anusvāra = कं

maṁ = ma + ṁ = + Anusvāra = मं

Go to Examples of Part 2 again.

How to add "ḥ" vowel (Visarga) after consonant

In order to add Visarga (ḥ), just insert the following character after the consonant: : (two dots)

kaḥ = ka + ḥ = + : = कः

maḥ = ma + ḥ = + : = मः

Go to Examples of Part 2 again.

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 How to write in Sanskrit (Part 3)

Vowels (Diphthongs)

You will learn now how to add the following four diphthongs: e, ai, o and au, after a consonant. They are denominated "diphthongs" because they are formed from other vowels. Go to Tables for further help when you need it:

e = a + i

ai = a + e

o = a + u

au = a + o

It is very simple to add them to a consonant. Look:

How to add "e" after consonant

In order to add "e", just insert the following downward character right over the vertical stroke: Vowel

ke = ka + e = + Vowel = के

me = ma + e = + Vowel = मे

Go to Examples of Part 3.

How to add "ai" after consonant

In order to add "ai", just insert the following character (kind of double "e") right over the vertical stroke: Vowel

kai = ka + ai = + Vowel = कै

mai = ma + ai = + Vowel = मै

Go to Examples of Part 3 again.

How to add "o" after consonant

In order to add "o", just insert the following character after a consonant: Vowel (one vertical line with the "e" sign over it).

The "o" character may appear incomplete or smaller when standing alone, but in "ko" and "mo" you can view it as it is.

ko = ka + o = + Vowel = को

mo = ma + o = + Vowel = मो

Go to Examples of Part 3 again.

How to add "au" after consonant

In order to add "au", just insert the following character after a consonant: Vowel (one vertical line with the "ai" sign over it).

The "au" character may appear incomplete when standing alone, but in "kau" and "mau" you can view it as it is.

kau = ka + au = + Vowel = कौ

mau = ma + au = + Vowel = मौ

Go to Examples of Part 3 again.

All vowels have been studied.

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 How to write in Sanskrit (Part 4)

Using "r" before and after a consonant

How to add "r" before consonant

In order to add "r" before consonant, just insert the following character directly on top of the respective consonant:   r - before consonant

Go to Tables for further help when you need it.

rka = r + ka =  r - before consonant + = र्क

rma = r + ma =  r - before consonant + = र्म

The entire Conjunct is to be considered just one new consonant, that is to speak.

When Anusvāra is added to the Conjunct formed from "r" + "a consonant", you must draw the dot (Anusvāra) just in the midst of "r" (within it). Look:

rkaṁ = r + ka + ṁ =  r - before consonant + + Anusvāra = र्कं

rmaṁ = r + ma + ṁ =  r - before consonant + + Anusvāra = र्मं

And so on with the rest.

Go to Examples of Part 4.

When the Conjunct is composed of several consonants, the "r" must be drawn just on top of the last consonant. Look:

rtya = r + t + ya =  r - before consonant + t + = र्त्य

rtsya = r + t + s + ya =  r - before consonant + t + s + = र्त्स्य

Very simple.

Go to Examples of Part 4 again.

How to add "r" after consonant

1) If the consonant has a vertical line, just draw an oblique stroke downward, from the vertical line. Look:

kra = ka + r = + an oblique stroke drawn downward = क्र

mra = ma + r = + an oblique stroke drawn downward = म्र

pra = pa + r = + an oblique stroke drawn downward = प्र

"śra" could be formed from śa + r = + an oblique stroke drawn downward; but it is usually used the following character: श्र (which appears in Conjuncts)

Go to Examples of Part 4 again.

2) If the consonant has no vertical line, just try to insert the oblique stroke in some convenient place (for example, an intersection or any appropriate place). Look:

dra= da + r = + an oblique stroke drawn downward = द्र

hra = ha + r = + an oblique stroke drawn downward = ह्र

And when you cannot add the oblique stroke to anywhere, just use this character instead of the simple oblique stroke:   r - after consonant - special

ṭhra = ṭha + r = +  r - after consonant - special = ठ्र

ḍhra = ḍha + r = +  r - after consonant - special = ढ्र

The same character may be used with some Conjuncts. For example:

ṣṭra = ṣṭa (a Conjunct to be found in Conjuncts page) + r = ष्ट +  r - after consonant - special = ष्ट्र

ṣṭhra = ṣṭha (a Conjunct to be found in Conjuncts page) + r = ष्ठ +  r - after consonant - special = ष्ठ्र (the character should really look like this: , but Sanskrit 2003 font is showing it in a less compact way)

Use always common sense in Sanskrit.

Go to Examples of Part 4 again.

Dear friend, all letters have been studied now. If something could not be understood fully by you, be patient, because in Transliterating we will keep practicing.

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 Examples of Part 1

All letters are writen left-right and up-down just as in English; and the horizontal line is drawn at the end, except when an additional stroke (or strokes) is on it (See First Strokes (1) and (2) for more information). Go to Tables for further help when you need it. Have the Sanskrit Alphabet at hand (a printed copy is recommended). Enlarge the Font size if necessary (Go to View menu above).

  1. Write the vowel "a" (). Firstly, draw the two curves downward. Secondly, draw the "connecting" stroke (left-right). Thirdly, draw the vertical stroke downward. And lastly, place the horizontal line (left-right). Very simple.
  2. Write the vowel "u" (). Firstly, draw the two curves downward. Lastly, the horizontal line (left-right).
  3. Write the vowel "e" (). Firstly, draw the "sinuous" stroke downward. Secondly, draw the short vertical stroke downward (at the end of it you must draw a very short stroke to the left and upward). Lastly, place the horizontal line (left-right) as if it was a kind of roof.
  4. Write the consonant "ka" (). Draw the ellipse which is united with the downward curved stroke (firstly right-left, secondly left-right and lastly downward). Both ellipse and downward curved stroke are to be drawn simultaneously. Afterward, draw the vertical line (up-down) and lastly place the horizontal line (left-right).
  5. Write the consonant "ṅa" (). Draw the "winding" stroke downward (of course the last part of it is upward). Then, place the point. And lastly, draw the horizontal line (left-right). Very easy!
  6. Write the consonant "cha" (). Firstly, draw the two curves downward and then the upward curve with a kind of curl at the end. Everything is to be drawn with just one stroke. Secondly, draw the very short connecting vertical line. Lastly, the horizontal line.
  7. Write the consonant "jha" (). Firstly, draw the "winding" stroke downward. Secondly, draw the very short connecting stroke (left-right). Thirdly, the vertical line (up-down). And lastly, the horizontal line (left-right).
  8. Write the rest of the letters by yourself. Good luck!

And now, let us see how to remove "a" from a consonant:

  1. Remove "a" from the final "ma" in "āsanam" (posture): Since "ma" () is a final consonant belonging to a word standing alone, you must add Virāma (Virāma) to it (and not to remove the vertical line of "ma"). Look: ā + sa + na +ma = + + + is turned into ā + sa + na + m = + + + म् When you join the letters together: āsanam = आसनम्
  2. Remove "a" from "da" in "sadguru" (true guru): Even though "da" is not a final consonant in this single word, the Virāma is to be added too, because "da" is without one vertical line. Look: sa + da + gu + ru = + + गु + रु is turned into sa + d + gu + ru = + द् + गु + रु When you join the letters together: सद्‍गुरु or सद्गुरु I will teach you how to add "u" to the consonants later. Be patient.
  3. Remove "a" from "ta" in "prayatna" (effort): "ta" is not a final consonant in this single word, and besides it has a vertical line. So, I simply must remove that vertical line. Virāma is not necessary here. Look: pra + ya + ta + na = प्र + + + is turned into pra + ya + t + na = प्र + + t + When you join the letters together: prayatna = प्रयत्न
  4. Remove "a" from "ta" in "etat" (this) and "ta" in "sat" (right, true). Since the first "ta" is not at the end of the sentence, no Virāma is necessary. You only need to remove the vertical stroke in "ta". Look: e + ta + ta = + + is turned into e + ta + t = + + t In turn, since the second "ta" is a final consonant belonging to a word placed at the end of the sentence, you must use Virāma. Look: sa + ta = + is turned into sa + t = + तत् Thus, the entire sentence is: etat sat = etat sat And you can join the two words together. Therefore, the "full-fledged" sentence is as follows: etatsat = एतत्सत् (This is right, true).

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 Examples of Conjuncts

The following Conjuncts are only a few examples. I have published a complete document on Conjuncts here.

Conjuncts with their component elements fully discernible

  1. Conjuncts formed from several consonants written successively without piling up.
kkya = क्क्य kkṇa = क्क्ण gdha = ग्ध
jjha = ज्झ ñcha = ञ्छ tka = त्क
tna = त्न dhma = ध्म śvya = श्‍व्‍य
  1. Conjuncts formed from several consonants which are simply piled up.
ṅka = ङ्क cca = च्च pta = प्त
ñca = ञ्च ñja = ञ्ज mna = म्न
dga = द्ग dva = द्व ṣṭa = ष्ट
  1. Mixture.
ptya = प्त्य dbhya = द्भ्य dvya = द्व्य
"pa" is over "ta" and there is no vertical stroke in "pta". As a result, "pt" is left. (However, if you would use Virāma: dbhya = द्भ्‍य and dvya = द्व्‍य, respectively. This is right but not used in Sanskrit generally)

Conjuncts with their component elements slightly discernible

Conjuncts formed from several consonants merged in each other to a certain extent. The consonants are hardly discernible. Let us see some examples:

dda = द्द dma = द्म dya = द्य

Conjuncts with their component elements undiscernible

Conjuncts formed from several consonants fully merged in each other and forming an entirely new letter. The consonants are undiscernible.

kṣa = क्ष jña = ज्ञ tra = त्र

No examples about the fourth kind of Conjuncts will be given by me here. I will explain it later.

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 Examples of Part 2

How to add "ā" after consonant

gā = ga + ā = + Vowel = गा ṭā = ṭa + ā = + Vowel = टा
tā = ta + ā = + Vowel = ता dā = da + ā = + Vowel = दा
nā = na + ā = + Vowel = ना pā = pa + ā = + Vowel = पा
rā = ra + ā = + Vowel = रा śā = śa + ā = + Vowel = शा

How to add "i" after consonant

khi = kha + i = + Vowel = खि ci = ca + i = + Vowel = चि
ḍi = ḍa + i = + Vowel = डि si = sa + i = + Vowel = सि
sti = s + ta + i = sta + i = स्त + Vowel = स्ति lpi = l + pa + i = lpa + i = ल्प + Vowel = ल्पि
lmi = l + ma + i = lma + i = ल्म + Vowel = ल्मि ṣpi = ṣ + pa + i = ṣpa + i = ष्प + Vowel = ष्पि

How to add "ī" after consonant

jī = ja + ī = + Vowels = जी ṇī = ṇa + ī = + Vowels = णी
phī = pha + ī = + Vowels = फी bhī = bha + ī = + Vowels = भी
lī = la + ī = + Vowels = ली vī = va + ī = + Vowels = वी
śī = śa + ī = + Vowels = शी hī = ha + ī = + Vowels = ही

How to add "u" after consonant

ju = ja + u = +  u - after consonant = जु hu = ha + u = +  u - after consonant = हु
su = sa + u = +  u - after consonant = सु ḍu = ḍa + u = +  u - after consonant = डु
lu = la + u = +  u - after consonant = लु śu = śa + u = +  u - after consonant = शु
gu = ga + u = u - after consonant = गु yu = ya + u = u - after consonant = यु

How to add "ū" after consonant

chū = cha + ū = +  ū - after consonant = छू ṭū = ṭa + ū = +  ū - after consonant = टू
khū = kha + ū = +  ū - after consonant = खू vū = va + ū = +  ū - after consonant = वू
ghū = gha + ū = +  ū - after consonant = घू ṭhū = ṭha + ū = +  ū - after consonant = ठू
cū = ca + ū = +  ū - after consonant = चू ṇū = ṇa + ū = +  ū - after consonant = णू

How to add "ṛ" vowel after consonant

sṛ = sa + ṛ = +  ṛ - after consonant = सृ tṛ = ta+ ṛ = +  ṛ - after consonant = तृ
pṛ = pa + ṛ = +  ṛ - after consonant = पृ gṛ = ga + ṛ = +  ṛ - after consonant = गृ
nṛ = na + ṛ = +  ṛ - after consonant = नृ ṭṛ = ṭa + ṛ = +  ṛ - after consonant = टृ
chṛ = cha + ṛ = +  ṛ - after consonant = छृ śṛ = śa + ṛ = +  ṛ - after consonant = शृ

How to add "ṝ" vowel after consonant

pṝ = pa + ṝ = +  ṝ - after consonant = पॄ tṝ = ta + ṝ = +  ṝ - after consonant = तॄ
bṝ = ba + ṝ = +  ṝ - after consonant = बॄ vṝ = va + ṝ = +  ṝ - after consonant = वॄ

How to add "ḷ" vowel after consonant

No examples are necessary.

How to add "ṁ" vowel (Anusvāra) after consonant

jaṁ = ja + ṁ = + Anusvāra = जं laṁ = la + ṁ = + Anusvāra = लं
yaṁ = ya + ṁ = + Anusvāra = यं saṁ = sa + ṁ = + Anusvāra = सं

How to add "ḥ" vowel (Visarga) after consonant

raḥ = ra + ḥ = + : = रः ṣaḥ = ṣa + ḥ = + : = षः
jhaḥ = jha + ḥ = + : = झः ḍaḥ = ḍa + ḥ = + : = डः

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 Examples of Part 3

How to add "e" after consonant

ce = ca + e = + Vowel = चे te = ta + e = + Vowel = ते
re = ra + e = + Vowel = रे le = la + e = + Vowel = ले
se = sa + e = + Vowel = से pe = pa + e = + Vowel = पे
śe = śa + e = + Vowel = शे ṭe = ṭa + e = + Vowel = टे

How to add "ai" after consonant

chai = cha + ai = + Vowel = छै jhai = jha + ai = + Vowel = झै
jai = ja + ai = + Vowel = जै ṭhai = ṭha + ai = + Vowel = ठै
dai = da + ai = + Vowel = दै bhai = bha + ai = + Vowel = भै
bai = ba + ai = + Vowel = बै ḍai = ḍa + ai = + Vowel = डै

How to add "o" after consonant

ho = ha + o = + Vowel = हो ro = ra + o = + Vowel = रो
ṣo = ṣa + o = + Vowel = षो śo = śa + o = + Vowel = शो
dho = dha + o = + Vowel = धो lo = la + o = + Vowel = लो
no = na + o = + Vowel = नो ḍho = ḍha + o = + Vowel = ढो

How to add "au" after consonant

khau = kha + au = + Vowel = खौ gau = ga + au = + Vowel = गौ
cau = ca + au = + Vowel = चौ ṇau = ṇa + au = + Vowel = णौ
vau = va + au = + Vowel = वौ yau = ya + au = + Vowel = यौ
phau = pha + au = + Vowel = फौ thau = tha + au = + Vowel = थौ

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 Examples of Part 4

How to add "r" before consonant

rkha = r + kha =  r - before consonant + = र्ख rga = r + ga =  r - before consonant + = र्ग
rca = r + ca =  r - before consonant + = र्च rja = r + ja =  r - before consonant + = र्ज
rta = r + ta =  r - before consonant + = र्त rda = r + da =  r - before consonant + = र्द
rna = r + na =  r - before consonant + = र्न rghya = r + gh + ya =  r - before consonant + gh + = र्ध्य
rla = r + la =  r - before consonant + = र्ल rva = r + va =  r - before consonant + = र्व
rtaṁ = r + ta + ṁ =  r - before consonant + + Anusvāra = र्तं rcaṁ = r + ca + ṁ =  r - before consonant + + Anusvāra = र्चं
rgya = r + g + ya =  r - before consonant + g + = र्ग्य rddha = r + d + dha =  r - before consonant + द् + = र्द्ध

How to add "r" after consonant (first part)

vra = va + r = + oblique stroke = व्र dhra = dha + r = + oblique stroke = ध्र
jra = ja + r = + oblique stroke = ज्र khra = kha + r = + oblique stroke = ख्र
ghra = gha + r = + oblique stroke = घ्र nra = na + r = + oblique stroke = न्र
dgra = d + ga + r = dga + r = द्ग + oblique stroke = द्ग्र bhra = bha + r = + oblique stroke = भ्र
bra = ba + r = + oblique stroke = ब्र  

How to add "r" after consonant (second part)

chra = cha + r = + oblique stroke = छ्र ṣṭrya = ṣṭa + r + ya = ष्ट +  r - after consonant - special + = ष्ट्र्य
drya = da + r + ya = dra + ya = द्र + = द्र्य  

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 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.