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 Learning Sanskrit - Phrases 1 (English)

Usual Phrases - Part 1


 Introduction

Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka once more. Note that by "common phrases" I will also include mere "words" (e.g. "yes"), which are equally usual. I will order everything by using "sets" of twenty phrases. Maybe in the future, I will find a better way to order them in different categories, but for the time being, I prefer to do it so.

For the transliteration, I will use IAST (the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, which allows the proper accentuation to be clearly shown, if there is any, e.g. "sādhu" - "well done!") and ITRANS so that you can copy the phrase and then you paste it in the ITRANS windows of Itranslator99/2003 software in order to get a particular phrase in original Sanskrit and international transliteration (IAST), if you wish so. There is an example on how to do it with Itranslator 99 regarding Sanskrit names, but it is also valid "in general" for these common phrases and the other versions of Itranslator. Just copy the phrase in ITRANS and follow the same procedure as explained in that document. If there are any doubts, tell me.

Remember that Sanskrit words generally undergo a process of metamorphosis when they form a phrase or sentence according to definite rules of Sandhi or combination. Anyway, my word-by-word translation will always tend to include their crude forms, i.e. without any mutation. Hence you will note that the words in the translation look mostly different when compared to those of the phrase.

A last thing: I will added clickable notes containing more explanatory information when necessary. Also, there will be often several ways to express something, as the Sanskrit vocabulary is much larger than the English one, but I will have to "only" include the most common ones for the sake of convenience.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence.

Let us get down to work!

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 Set of common phrases

1 Devanāgarī आम्
IAST Ām
ITRANS Am
Meaning Yes!
2 Devanāgarī मा
IAST
Na
ITRANS mA
na
Meaning No!, do not!, let... not!1 
Not2 
3 Devanāgarī मा भैषीः
मा भैः
IAST Mā bhaiṣīḥ
Mā bhaiḥ
ITRANS mA bhaiShIH
mA bhaiH
Meaning Do not (mā) be afraid (bhaiṣīḥ)! (2nd Person singular)
Do not (mā) be afraid (bhaiḥ)! (2nd Person singular)
4 Devanāgarī शान्तिर्भवतु
IAST Śāntirbhavatu
ITRANS shAntirbhavatu
Meaning Let there be (bhavatu) peace (śāntiḥ)!3 
5 Devanāgarī शान्तिर्भवतात्
IAST Śāntirbhavatāt
ITRANS shAntirbhavatAt
Meaning May there be (bhavatāt) peace (śāntiḥ)!4 
6 Devanāgarī शुभं ते प्रभातम्
शुभं वां प्रभातम्
शुभं वः प्रभातम्
IAST Śubhaṁ te prabhātam
Śubhaṁ vāṁ prabhātam
Śubhaṁ vaḥ prabhātam
ITRANS shubhaM te prabhAtam
shubhaM vAM prabhAtam
shubhaM vaH prabhAtam
Meaning Good (śubham) morning (prabhātam) to you (te)!5 
Good (śubham) morning (prabhātam) to both of you (vām)!6 
Good (śubham) morning (prabhātam) to (all of) you (vas)!7 
7 Devanāgarī शुभस्तेऽपराह्णः
शुभो वामपराह्णः
शुभो वोऽपराह्णः
IAST Śubhaste'parāhṇaḥ
Śubho vāmaparāhṇaḥ
Śubho vo'parāhṇaḥ
ITRANS shubhaste.aparAhNaH
shubho vAmaparAhNaH
shubho vo.aparAhNaH
Meaning Good (śubhaḥ) afternoon (aparāhṇaḥ) to you (te)!
Good (śubhaḥ) afternoon (aparāhṇaḥ) to both of you (vām)!
Good (śubhaḥ) afternoon (aparāhṇaḥ) to (all of) you (vas)!
8 Devanāgarī शुभस्ते प्रदोषः
शुभो वां प्रदोषः
शुभो वः प्रदोषः
IAST Śubhaste pradoṣaḥ
Śubho vāṁ pradoṣaḥ
Śubho vaḥ pradoṣaḥ
ITRANS shubhaste pradoShaH
shubho vAM pradoShaH
shubho vaH pradoShaH
Meaning Good (śubhaḥ) evening (pradoṣaḥ) to you (te)!
Good (śubhaḥ) evening (pradoṣaḥ) to both of you (vām)!
Good (śubhaḥ) evening (pradoṣaḥ) to (all of) you (vaḥ)!
9 Devanāgarī शुभा ते रात्रिः
शुभा वां रात्रिः
शुभा वो रात्रिः
IAST Śubhā te rātriḥ
Śubhā vāṁ rātriḥ
Śubhā vo rātriḥ
ITRANS shubhA te rAtriH
shubhA vAM rAtriH
shubhA vo rAtriH
Meaning Good (śubhā) night (rātriḥ) to you (te)!
Good (śubhā) night (rātriḥ) to both of you (vām)!
Good (śubhā) night (rātriḥ) to (all of) you (vaḥ)!
10 Devanāgarī अनुगृहीतोऽस्मि
IAST Anugṛhīto'smi
ITRANS anugR^ihIto.asmi
Meaning Thanks!
[lit. "Obliged (anugṛhītaḥ) I am (asmi)!"]8 
11 Devanāgarī नमस्ते
नमो वाम्
नमो वः
IAST Namaste
Namo vām
Namo vaḥ
ITRANS namaste
namo vAm
namo vaH
Meaning A kind of "Hello!", but with great respect
[lit. "Reverential salutation (namas) to you (te)!"]
A kind of "Hello!", but with great respect
[lit. "Reverential salutation (namas) to both of you (vām)!"]
A kind of "Hello!", but with great respect
[lit."Reverential salutation (namas) to (all of) you (vas)!"]
12 Devanāgarī यत्र यत्र धूमस्तत्र तत्र पावकः
IAST Yatra yatra dhūmastatra tatra pāvakaḥ
ITRANS yatra yatra dhUmastatra tatra pAvakaH
Meaning There is no smoke without fire
[lit. "Wherever (yatra yatra) (there is) smoke (dhūmaḥ),
fire (pāvakaḥ) (is present) in that place (tatra tatra)"]
13 Devanāgarī यथा वृक्षस्तथा फलम्
IAST Yathā vṛkṣastathā phalam
ITRANS yathA vR^ikShastathA phalam
Meaning A chip off the old block
[lit "Just as (yathā) the tree (vṛkṣaḥ), so (tathā) (is its) fruit (phalam)"]
14 Devanāgarī त्वयि प्रेम करोमि
युवयोः प्रेम करोमि
युष्मासु प्रेम करोमि
IAST Tvayi prema karomi
Yuvayoḥ prema karomi
Yuṣmāsu prema karomi
ITRANS tvayi prema karomi
yuvayoH prema karomi
yuShmAsu prema karomi
Meaning I love (prema karomi) you (tvayi)9 
I love (prema karomi) you both (yuvayoḥ)
I love (prema karomi) you (all) (yuṣmāsu)
(Oh ladies, I couldn't control my feelings, sorry;
it will not happen again, at least in this document, hehe)
Devanāgarī त्वय्यनुरागवान्भवामि
युवयोरनुरागवान्भवामि
युष्मास्वनुरागवान्भवामि
IAST Tvayyanurāgavānbhavāmi
Yuvayoranurāgavānbhavāmi
Yuṣmāsvanurāgavānbhavāmi
INTRANS tvayyanurAgavAnbhavAmi
yuvayoranurAgavAnbhavAmi
yuShmAsvanurAgavAnbhavAmi
Meaning I love (anurāgavān bhavāmi) you (tvayi) (masculine gender)
I love (anurāgavān bhavāmi) you both (yuvayoḥ) (masculine gender)
I love (anurāgavān bhavāmi) you (all) (yuṣmāsu) (masculine gender)
Devanāgarī त्वय्यनुरागवती भवामि
युवयोरनुरागवती भवामि
युष्मास्वनुरागवती भवामि
IAST Tvayyanurāgavatī bhavāmi
Yuvayoranurāgavatī bhavāmi
Yuṣmāsvanurāgavatī bhavāmi
ITRANS tvayyanurAgavatI bhavAmi
yuvayoranurAgavatI bhavAmi
yuShmAsvanurAgavatI bhavAmi
Meaning I love (anurāgavatī bhavāmi) you (tvayi) (feminine gender)
I love (anurāgavatī bhavāmi) you both (yuvayoḥ) (feminine gender)
I love (anurāgavatī bhavāmi) you (all) (yuṣmāsu) (feminine gender)
Devanāgarī त्वयि प्रीये
युवयोः प्रीये
युष्मासु प्रीये
IAST Tvayi prīye
Yuvayoḥ prīye
Yuṣmāsu prīye
ITRANS tvayi prIye
yuvayoH prIye
yuShmAsu prIye
Meaning I love (prīye) you (tvayi)
I love (prīye) you both (yuvayoḥ)
I love (prīye) you (all) (yuṣmāsu)
Devanāgarī त्वय्यनुरज्ये
युवयोरनुरज्ये
युष्मास्वनुरज्ये
IAST Tvayyanurajye
Yuvayoranurajye
Yuṣmāsvanurajye
ITRANS tvayyanurajye
yuvayoranurajye
yuShmAsvanurajye
Meaning I love (anurajye) you (tvayi)
I love (anurajye) you both (yuvayoḥ
I love (anurajye) you (all) (yuṣmāsu)
Devanāgarī त्वां प्रेमानुभवामि
युवां प्रेमानुभवामि
युष्मान्प्रेमानुभवामि
IAST Tvāṁ premānubhavāmi
Yuvāṁ premānubhavāmi
Yuṣmānpremānubhavāmi
ITRANS tvAM premAnubhavAmi
yuvAM premAnubhavAmi
yuShmAnpremAnubhavAmi
Meaning I love (prema anubhavāmi) you (tvām)
[lit. "I experience (anubhavāmi) love (prema) toward you (tvām)"]
I love (prema anubhavāmi) you both (yuvām)
[lit. "I experience (anubhavāmi) love (prema) toward you both (yuvām)"]
I love (prema anubhavāmi) you (all) (yuṣmān)
[lit. "I experience (anubhavāmi) love (prema) toward you (all) (yuṣmān)"]
15 Devanāgarī स्वागतम्
IAST Svāgatam
ITRANS svAgatam
Meaning Welcome!
{If you wish to specify the number of people, simply add "te" (to you), "vām" (to you both) or "vas" (to you all) and turn "m" in "svāgatam" into "ṁ" (Anusvāra) by the 10th Rule of Consonant Sandhi. For instance: "Svāgataṁ vām" [(I/we) welcome you both!]}
16 Devanāgarī परमम्
IAST Paramam
ITRANS paramam
Meaning Very well!
17 Devanāgarī साधु
IAST Sādhu
ITRANS sAdhu
Meaning Well done!
18 Devanāgarī कष्टम्
IAST Kaṣṭam
ITRANS kaShTam
Meaning Alas! (an exclamation of grief or sorrow)
19 Devanāgarī त्राहि
IAST Trāhi
ITRANS trAhi
Meaning Help! (lit. "trāhi" means "protect!" or "rescue!",
Imperative Mood 2nd Person singular)
20 Devanāgarī किं क्षेममस्ति भवतः
किं कुशलमस्ति भवतः
कीदृशी स्थितिर्भवतः
IAST Kiṁ kṣemamasti bhavataḥ
Kiṁ kuśalamasti bhavataḥ
Kīdṛśī sthitirbhavataḥ
ITRANS kiM kShemamasti bhavataH
kiM kushalamasti bhavataH
kIdR^ishI sthitirbhavataH
Meaning Ho do you do?
[lit. "How (kim) is (asti) your (bhavataḥ) safety or security (kṣemam)?"]
Ho do you do?
[lit. "How (kim) is (asti) your (bhavataḥ) welfare (kuśalam)?"]
Ho do you do?
[lit. "What (kīdṛśī) (is) your (bhavataḥ) stability or permanence (sthitiḥ) (like)?"]10 

1  It is a particle of negation or prohibition in an imperative sense for the most part. For example: "Mā me vadhīḥ" - "Do not (mā) slay (vadhīḥ) me (me)!". Or else: "Jagati duḥkhaṁ mā bhūt" - "Let there not be (mā bhūt) pain (duḥkham) in the world (jagati)!". In the latter example, "mā" is the "let... not", while "bhūt" is... "there be", as it were. The matter of "bhūt" meaning "there be" is not exactly so, of course, but it is a little more complicated. Anyway, that grammatical subtlety is not relevant here. And of course, "mā" may also be used in other multiple ways, but the ones I pointed out are enough in this context.Return 

2  In this case, the sense is not imperative as before. For example: "Na sa gāyati" - "He (saḥ) (does) not (na) sing (gāyati)".Return 

3  In an imperative sense.Return 

4  In a benedictive sense, i.e. as a blessing.Return 

5  Note that I had to translate the entire greeting in Sanskrit. Of course that you will generally say "Good morning" plainly, but in Sanskrit is usual to express the greeting that way. In this case it is addressed to just one person. If you only say "Śubhaṁ prabhātam", it may also means "A good (śubham) morning (prabhātam)", but the inclusion of "te" (to you) clearly indicates that it is a greeting addressed to one person, got it? The same thing is true for the rest of greetings (good afternoon, good evening, hello, etc.). Remember this, please.Return 

6  Ditto note 5 for the most part. The only difference is that in this case the greeting is addressed to two people, which is indicated by the enclitic particle "vām".Return 

7  Ditto note 5 for the most part. The only difference is that in this case the greeting is addressed to three or more people, which is indicated by the enclitic particle "vas/ḥ".Return 

8  Though there are other ways to express gratitude, this is the most common. However, the best feature of it is its being impersonal, i.e. you can equally use it when you address one, two or more people. Of course, if you want to express "we thank you", you should turn the expression "Anugṛhīto'smi" into "Anugṛhītāḥ smaḥ": "Obliged (anugṛhītāḥ) we are (smaḥ)", and so on with the rest of persons and numbers (you, they, etc.), i.e. by applying the right declension to "anugṛhīta" and conjugating the verb "as" (to be) adequately.Return 

9  I will show you five ways to tell "I love you (one person) - I love you both (two people) - I love you all (three or more people... in fact, I add "all" to indicate that they are more than two people, got it?... keep this in mind always, please)", i.e. in singular, dual and plural number. I will use five types of verbs meaning "to love": "prema kṛ", "anurāgavat bhū", "prī", "anurañj" and "prema anubhū" (the latter literally means "to experience love"). All verbs, expect for "anurāgavat bhū", will be conjugated equally in 1st Person singular (I). However, "anurāgavat bhū" has two forms: "anurāgavān bhū" (masculine, i.e. if I a man who loves) and "anurāgavatī bhū" (femenine, i.e. if I am a woman who loves... oh well, this will be pretty embarrassing to me, hehe). Keep this in mind, please. Believe it or not, there are even other ways to say the same phrase, but five is enough for the time being, isn't it? Oh, Sanskrit is so vast!Return 

10  The term "kīdṛśī" literally means "what like?", and not merely "what?". Hence I had to add "like" at the end of the phrase to make my translation even more accurate.Return 

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 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

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