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 Learning Sanskrit - Combination (4)

Visarga Sandhi


 Introduction

Hi, this is Gabriel Pradīpaka. We will learn Visarga Sandhi here. Remember now the three kinds of Sandhi:

1) Vowel Combinations (Vowel Sandhi)

2) Visarga Combinations (Visarga Sandhi)

3) Consonant Combinations (Consonant Sandhi)

There are many Visarga rules, but I have chosen ten as the most important ones.

However, before beginning with our study, remember the following table:

Gradations of Vowel Alternation
Type Vowels
WEAKENED GRADATION (simple vowels) a i-ī u-ū ṛ-ṝ
STRENGTHENED GRADATION (Guṇa) a e o ar al
PROTRACTED GRADATION (Vṛddhi) ā ai au ār āl

Besides, it is available now a page with plenty of examples for every rule which has been taught. Click here.

Let's begin our study right now.

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 1st Rule

A very important rule, indeed:

1st Rule
The final letters "s" and "r" may be changed to Visarga (ḥ). There are words "originally" ending in "s" and words "originally" ending in "r", but Visarga may be substituted for the final "s" and "r" according to the following sub-rules:a) Final "s" of a word followed by any letter or by nothing. b) Final "r" of a word followed by a hard consonant or by nothing. Of course, once "ḥ" is substituted for "s" or "r", you might have to apply other rules to the word ending now in Visarga.

Look at the following table:

Table 1
final "s" + any letter or nothing = ḥ (Visarga) + any letter or nothing
final "r" + a hard consonant or nothing = ḥ (Visarga) + a hard consonant or nothing

Two examples for every case. As I have stated above, after you substitute "ḥ" for the "s" or "r", you will probably have to use other rules to combine the word which ends now in Visarga. In short, you will firstly have to change "s" or "r" to "ḥ" and then, sometimes, you will have to apply other rule of Visarga Sandhi to the word which ends now in "ḥ". In the following examples, you will not have to use any further rule to combine. I have chosen examples which do not need a subsequent combination because you do not know other Visarga rules yet. Got the point? Good:

final "s" + any letter or nothing = ḥ (Visarga) + any letter or nothing
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
मनस् (manas) = मनः (mana) नमस् (namas) + कृष्णाय (kṛṣṇāya) = नमः कृष्णाय (namaḥ kṛṣṇāya)
Mind (manaḥ) Salutation (namaḥ) to Kṛṣṇa (kṛṣṇāya)
final "r" + a hard consonant or nothing = ḥ (Visarga) + a hard consonant or nothing
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
पुनर् (punar) = पुनः (puna) मातर् (mātar) + क्रन्देः (krandeḥ) = मातः क्रन्देः (mātaḥ krandeḥ)
Again (punaḥ) Oh mother (mātaḥ) weep (krandeḥ)!

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 2nd Rule

Another important rule which is very often used. Pay attention:

2nd Rule
Visarga (substituted for "s" and not "r") preceded by "a" and followed by "a" or a soft consonant, is changed to "u". In turn, if there is an initial "a" in the second word, an apostrophe (') is to be substituted for it.

Look at the following table:

Table 2
final "ḥ" (substituted for "s" and not "r") preceded by "a"
+
a
=
o' ("o" is formed from previous "a" plus "u" --the new form of Visarga-- according to the second Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi)
final "ḥ" (substituted for "s" and not "r") preceded by "a"
+
a soft consonant
=
o ("o" is formed from previous "a" plus "u" --the new form of Visarga-- according to the second Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi)

Two examples for every case. Note that Visarga must not come from a word using originally "r" (e.g. "punar" --again--). Since there are not many words originally ending in "r", you may generally use this rule with no problem. The vowel "o" appears because I apply the 2nd Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi to combine "a" (which precedes Visarga) with "u" (the new form of Visarga now). Simple!:

final "ḥ" (substituted for "s" and not "r") preceded by "a" + "a" = " o' "
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
शिवः (śivaḥ) + अहम् (aham) = शिवोऽहम् (śivo'ham) देवः (devaḥ) + अस्ति (ásti) = देवोऽस्ति (devo'sti)
I (aham) (am) Śiva (śivaḥ) God (devaḥ) exists (ásti)
final "ḥ" (substituted for "s" and not "r") preceded by "a" + a soft consonant = "o" + a soft consonant
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
रुद्रः (rudraḥ) + वन्द्यः (vandyaḥ) = रुद्रो वन्द्यः (rudro vandyaḥ) प्राणायामः (prāṇāyāmaḥ) + हितः (hitaḥ) = प्राणायामो हितः (prāṇāyāmo hitaḥ)
Rudra (rudraḥ) is to be praised (vandyaḥ) Prāṇāyāma (prāṇāyāmaḥ) is beneficial (hitaḥ)

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 3rd Rule

A crucial rule which is also very often used:

3rd Rule
When Visarga is followed by "c", "ch", "ṭ", "ṭh", "t" and "th", themselves not followed by a sibilant (ś, ṣ or s), is changed to "ś" (before "c" and "ch"), "ṣ" (before "ṭ" and "ṭh") and "s" (before "t" and "th"). It is to be noted that the words "saḥ" and "eṣaḥ" does not follow this rule at all (See 10th Rule).

Look at the following table:

Table 3
"ḥ"
+
"c" or "ch" (not followed by a sibilant)
=
ś + "c" or "ch" (not followed by a sibilant)
"ḥ"
+
"ṭ" or "ṭh" (not followed by a sibilant)
=
ṣ + "ṭ" or "ṭh" (not followed by a sibilant)
"ḥ"
+
"t" or "th" (not followed by a sibilant)
=
s + "t" or "th" (not followed by a sibilant)

Two examples for every case and one for the exception. Note that you must finally join "ś", "ṣ" and "s" with the respective "c", "ch", etc. From the examples you will understand what I meant. Besides, the words "saḥ" (he, that) and "eṣaḥ" (he, this) are exceptions to this rule. Go to 10th rule for more information.

"ḥ" + "c" or "ch" (not followed by a sibilant) = ś + "c" or "ch" (not followed by a sibilant)
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
शिवः (śivaḥ) + (ca) = शिवश्च (śivaśca) शिवः (śivaḥ) + छायः (chāyaḥ) = शिवश्छायः (śivaśchāyaḥ)
Śiva (śivaḥ) too (ca) Śiva (śivaḥ) grants shade (chāyaḥ)
"ḥ" + "ṭ" or "ṭh" (not followed by a sibilant) = ṣ + "ṭ" or "ṭh" (not followed by a sibilant)
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
सुन्दरः (sundaraḥ) + टङ्कः (ṭaṅkaḥ) = सुन्दरष्टङ्कः (sundaraṣṭaṅkaḥ) वरः (varaḥ) + ठक्कुराणाम् (ṭhakkurāṇām) = वरष्ठक्कुराणाम् (varaṣṭhakkurāṇām)
A beautiful (sundaraḥ) hatchet (ṭaṅkaḥ) The most eminent one (varaḥ) among the deities (ṭhakkurāṇām)
"ḥ" + "t" or "th" (not followed by a sibilant) = s + "t" or "th" (not followed by a sibilant)
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
विष्णुः (viṣṇuḥ) + त्राता (trātā) = विष्णुस्त्राता (viṣṇustrātā) नरः (naraḥ) + थुत्थुकारकः (thutthukārakaḥ) = नरस्थुत्थकारकः (narasthutthukārakaḥ)
Viṣṇu (viṣṇuḥ) (is) the protector (trātā) A man (naraḥ) who smacks his lips in eating (thutthukārakaḥ)
But not this time, because the first consonant in the second word is immediately followed by a sibilant ("s")
I have not marked anything with green color because there is no combination at all
जन्तुः (jantuḥ) + त्सारी (tsārī) = जन्तुः त्सारी (jantuḥ tsārī) and not जन्तुस्त्सारी (jantustsārī)
An animal (jantuḥ) approaching stealthily (tsārī)

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 4th Rule

Another important rule which is very often used. Pay attention:

4th Rule
When Visarga is preceded by "i" or "u" and does not belong to any particular termination, is transformed into "ṣ" [except in the word "muhuḥ" (originally "muhur") --suddenly, at once, incessantly, etc.--] if followed by a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class.

Look at the following table:

Table 4
(except in the word "muhuḥ") final "ḥ" preceded by "i" or "u" and not belonging to any particular termination + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class = ṣ + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class
final "ḥ" in the word "muhuḥ" + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class = no change

Two examples of the first case and one of the second one. It is to be noted that Visarga must not belong to any particular termination (e.g. "uḥ"). I will make this last point clear by means of two examples, do not worry. The word "duḥkha" (pain), even though it appears so written in the dictionaries, it should be written "duṣkha" according to the present rule.

(except in the word "muhuḥ") final "ḥ" preceded by "i" or "u" and not belonging to any particular termination + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class = ṣ + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
दुः (duḥ) + कर्म (karma) = दुष्कर्म (duṣkarma) निः (niḥ) + पतिसुता (patisutā) = निष्पतिसुता (niṣpatisutā)
An evil (duḥ) action (gajaḥ) A woman having no (niḥ) husband (pati) and no (niḥ) sons (sutā)
final "ḥ" in the word "muhuḥ" + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class = no change
I have not marked anything with green color because there is no combination at all despite
a compound is formed
मुहुः (muhuḥ) + कृतः (kṛtaḥ) = मुहुःकृतः (muhuḥkṛtaḥ)
Often (muhuḥ) done (kṛtaḥ)
final "ḥ" preceded by "i" or "u" and belonging to a particular termination + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class = no change
I have not marked anything with green color because there is no combination at all
द्रष्टुः (draṣṭuḥ) + परावस्था (parāvasthā) = द्रष्टुःपरावस्था (draṣṭuḥ parāvasthā) योगिभिः (yogibhiḥ) + प्रोक्तः (proktaḥ) = योगिभिः प्रोक्तः (yogibhiḥ proktaḥ)
The supreme (parā) condition (avasthā) of the Seer (draṣṭuḥ) --The termination is "uḥ"-- (That which is) told (proktaḥ) by the yogī-s (yogibhiḥ) --The termination is "bhiḥ"--

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 5th Rule

A very important rule, indeed:

5th Rule
When "dviḥ", "triḥ" and "catuḥ" play the role of adverbs showing frequency, they change optionally their Visarga to "ṣ" if followed by a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class.

Look at the following table:

Table 5
"dviḥ", "triḥ" and "catuḥ" playing the role of adverbs showing frequency + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class = ṣ + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class
"dviḥ", "triḥ" and "catuḥ" playing the role of adverbs showing frequency + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class = no change

Examples for every case and exception.

dviḥ, triḥ and catuḥ playing the role of adverbs showing frequency + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class = ṣ + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
त्रिः (triḥ) + कुरु (kuru) = त्रिष्कुरु (triṣkuru) चतुः (catuḥ) + पृणामि (pṛṇāmi) = चतुष्पृणामि (catuṣpṛṇāmi)
Do (kuru) thrice (manaḥ) I fill (pṛṇāmi) four times (catuḥ)

Or optionally:

dviḥ, triḥ and catuḥ playing the role of adverbs showing frequency + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class = no change
I have not marked anything with green color because there is no combination at all
त्रिः (triḥ) + कुरु (kuru) = त्रिःकुरु (triḥkuru) चतुः (catuḥ) + पृणामि (pṛṇāmi) = चतुःपृणामि (catuḥpṛṇāmi)
Do (kuru) thrice (triḥ) I fill (pṛṇāmi) four times (catuḥ)

But if they do not play the role of adverbs, this rule is not to be applied:

dviḥ, triḥ and catuḥ not playing the role of adverbs showing frequency + a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class = no change at all (but 4th Rule must be used anyway, hence the change of "ḥ" to "ṣ")
I have not marked anything with green color because there is no combination at all
द्विः (dviḥ) + कपोलः (kapolaḥ) = द्विष्कपोकः (dviṣkapolaḥ) चतुः (catuḥ) + पादः (pādaḥ) = चतुष्पादः (catuṣpādaḥ)
Having two (dviḥ) cheeks (kapolaḥ) Having four (catuḥ) feet (pādaḥ)

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 6th Rule

Another important rule which is very often used. Pay attention:

6th Rule
A word ending in "iḥ" or "uḥ" changes optionally its Visarga to "ṣ" if followed by a hard consonant belonging to guttural or labial class, only when the following word is necessary in order to complete the sense.

This rule is a kind of complement to the fourth rule. Look at the following table, where you can see the two options:

Table 6
final "iḥ" or "uḥ" + a hard consonant (guttural or labial) belonging to a word that is necessary to complete the sense = "iṣ"or "uṣ" + a hard consonant (guttural or labial) belonging to a word that is necessary to complete the sense
final "iḥ" or "uḥ" + a hard consonant (guttural or labial) belonging to a word that is necessary to complete the sense = no change

Examples:

final "iḥ" or "uḥ" + a hard consonant (guttural or labial) belonging to a word that is necessary to complete the sense = "iṣ" or "uṣ" + a hard consonant (guttural or labial) belonging to a word that is necessary to complete the sense
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
चक्षुः (cakṣuḥ) + कामये (kāmaye) = चक्षुष्कामये (caksuṣkāmaye) हविः (haviḥ) + कुरुमः (kurumaḥ) = हविष्कुरुमः (haviṣkurumaḥ)
I wish (kāmaye) the faculty of seeing (cakṣuḥ) We prepare (kurumaḥ) the oblation (haviḥ)

Or optionally:

final "iḥ" or "uḥ" + a hard consonant (guttural or labial) belonging to a word that is necessary to complete the sense = no change
I have not marked anything with green color because there is no combination at all
चक्षुः (cakṣuḥ) + कामये (kāmaye) = चक्षुःकामये (cakṣuḥkāmaye) हविः (haviḥ) + कुरुमः (kurumaḥ) = हविःकुरुमः (haviḥkurumaḥ)
I wish (kāmaye) the faculty of seeing (cakṣuḥ) We prepare (kurumaḥ) the oblation (haviḥ)

But no Sandhi in the following example because "dhanuḥ" is not connected with "pakṣyāmi", that is, the latter is not necessary to complete the sense. You will see that there are other rules of Sandhi operating in the sentence, but focus your attention predominantly on the aforesaid two words.

final "iḥ" or "uḥ" + a hard consonant (guttural or labial) belonging to a word that is not necessary to complete the sense = no change
I have not marked anything with green color because there is no combination at all
तत् (tat) + सुन्दरम् (sundaram) + धनुः (dhanuḥ) + पक्ष्यामि (pakṣyāmi) + अन्नम् (annam) = तत्सुन्दरं धनुः पक्ष्याम्यन्नम् (tatsundaraṁ dhanuḥ pakṣyāmyannam)
That (tat) bow (dhanuḥ) (is) beautiful (sundaram); I will cook (pakṣyāmi) the food (annam)

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 7th Rule

A rule which is very commonly used:

7th Rule
When Visarga is preceded by any vowel (except "a" or "ā") and followed by a vowel or a soft consonant is to be transformed into "r".

Look at the following table:

Table 7
final "ḥ" preceded by any vowel (except "a" or "ā") + a vowel or a soft consonant = r + a vowel or a soft consonant

This rule is closely connected with other two rules (2 and 9). Examples now:

final "ḥ" preceded by any vowel (except "a" or "ā") + a vowel or a soft consonant = r + a vowel or a soft consonant
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
विष्णुः (viṣṇuḥ) + ईक्षते (īkṣate) = विष्णुरीक्षते (viṣṇukṣate) हरिः (hariḥ) + जयति (jayati) = हरिर्जयति (harirjayati) गुरुः (guruḥ) + एव (eva) = गुरुरेव (gurureva)
Viṣṇu (viṣṇuḥ) sees (īkṣate) Hari (hariḥ) conquers (jayati) Only (eva) the Guru (guruḥ)

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 8th Rule

Another important rule that is very often used. Pay attention:

8th Rule
When a word ending in "r" (either originally or after applying the previous 7th Rule) is followed by "r" or "ḍh", the final "r" is dropped, and any preceding "a", "i" or "u" is made long.

Look at the following table:

Table 8
final "r" (belonging to a word originally ending in "r" or to a word which ends in "r" after applying the rule 7) + "r" or "ḍh" = final "r" is dropped, and any preceding "a", "i" or "u" is made long (obviously, as far as "ā", "ī" and "ū" is concerned, no lengthening is necessary)

This rule is very important and is applied sometimes. Some examples now.

final "r" belonging to a word originally ending in "r" or to a word which ends in "r" after applying the rule 7 + "r" or "ḍh"= final "r" is dropped, and any preceding "a", "i" or "u" is made long
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
मह्यम् (mahyam) + विष्णुः (viṣṇuḥ) + रोचते (rocate) = मह्यं विष्णुर् रोचते (mahyaṁ viṣṇur rocate) = मह्यं विष्णूरोचते (mahyaṁ viṣṇūrocate) पुनर् (punar) + ढुण्ढिः (ḍhunḍhiḥ) = पुन ढुण्ढिः (puna ḍhunḍhiḥ) = पुनाढुण्ढिः (punāḍhunḍhiḥ)
To me (mahyam) Viṣṇu (viṣṇuḥ) is pleasing or agreeable (rocate) (This is to be generally translated this way, "I like Viṣṇu". However, the following translation is also possible, "Viṣṇu longs for me".) Gaṇeśa (ḍhunḍhiḥ) again (punar)

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 9th Rule

A crucial rule which is also very often used:

9th Rule
When Visarga (preceded by "ā") is followed by a soft consonant must be dropped. However, it is optionally dropped when: (1) followed by a vowel, (2) preceded by "a" and followed by a vowel --except "a"--. Finally, if one chooses not to drop it, Visarga must be changed to "y" in those two cases.

This rule contains a kind of complement to the second rule. Look at the following table:

Table 9
You must obligatorily drop the Visarga in this case
final "ḥ" (preceded by "ā")
+
a soft consonant
=
ḥ (Visarga) must be dropped
Two additional situations in which you optionally may either drop the Visarga or transform it into "y"
final "ḥ" (preceded by "ā")
+
any vowel
=
ḥ (Visarga) is either dropped or transformed into "y"
final "ḥ" (preceded by "a")
+
any vowel (except "a")
=

Several examples now.

final "ḥ" preceded by "ā" + a soft consonant = "ḥ" must be dropped
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
अश्वाः (aśvāḥ) + भवन्ति (bhavanti) = अश्वा भवन्ति (aśvā bhavanti) देवाः (devāḥ) + निस्तारयन्ति (nistārayanti) = देवा निस्तारयन्ति (devā nistārayanti)
The horses (aśvāḥ) exist (bhavanti) The gods (devāḥ) rescue (nistārayanti)
final "ḥ" preceded by "ā" + any vowel = "ḥ" is either dropped or transformed into "y"
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
योगाः (yogāḥ) + आवश्यकाः (āvaśyakāḥ) = योगा आवश्यकाः (yogā āvaśyakāḥ) योगाः (yogāḥ) + आवश्यकाः (āvaśyakāḥ) = योगाय् आवश्यकाः (yogāy āvaśyakāḥ) = योगायावश्यकाः (yogāyāvaśyakāḥ)
The Yoga-s (yogāḥ) (are) necessary (āvaśyakāḥ) The Yoga-s (yogāḥ) (are) necessary (āvaśyakāḥ)
final "ḥ" preceded by "a" + any vowel (except "a") = "ḥ" is either dropped or transformed into "y"
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
शिवः (śivaḥ) + एति (eti) = शिव एति (śiva eti) शिवः (śivaḥ) + एति (eti) = शिवय् एति (śivay eti) = शिवयेति (śivayeti)
Śiva (śivaḥ) goes (eti) Śiva (śivaḥ) goes (eti)

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 10th Rule

Another important rule that is very often used. Pay attention:

10th Rule
The Visarga of the masculine pronouns "saḥ" (he, that) and "eṣaḥ" (he, this) is dropped before a consonant when they are not used in a negative Tatpuruṣa compound. Besides, sometimes in poetry, the final Visarga is dropped before a vowel (except "a") to meet the requirements of the meter. Obviously, "a" in the resulting "sa" is furtherly combined according to the well-known rules of Vowel Sandhi.

Look at the following table:

Table 10
final "ḥ" in saḥ and eṣaḥ
+
any consonant = ḥ is always dropped, except in a negative Tatpuruṣa compound
final "ḥ" in saḥ and eṣaḥ (sometimes in poetry)
+
any vowel (except "a") = ḥ may be dropped to meet the rules of the meter

Do not worry about compounds at this level of your learning. You only need to know that Tatpuruṣa compounds are Determinative Compounds formed from two words, the former "determining" the sense of the latter. There are 6 classes of Tatpuruṣa-s. The second one pertains to the negative Tatpuruṣa-s. They are formed by adding either "na", "a" or "an". The whole thing is much more complicated, but as I said, do not worry about it now. I have rarely faced a negative Tatpuruṣa containing "saḥ" or "eṣaḥ".

And regarding the Visarga being dropped before vowels (except "a") in poetry, I can say that it occurs sometimes. Examples now.

final "ḥ" in saḥ and eṣaḥ + any consonant = "ḥ" is always dropped, except in a negative Tatpuruṣa
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
सः (saḥ) + गायति (gāyati) = स गायति (sa gāyati) एषः (eṣaḥ) + योगः (yogaḥ) = एष योगः (eṣa yogaḥ)
He (saḥ) sings (gāyati) This (eṣaḥ) Yoga (yogaḥ)
final "ḥ" in saḥ and eṣaḥ belonging to a negative Tatpuruṣa + any consonant = "ḥ" is not dropped and subsequently you will have to use the second rule of Visarga Sandhi to combine the final "aḥ" suitably
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
असः (asaḥ) --a negative Tatpuruṣa-- + देवः (devaḥ) = असः देवः (asaḥ devaḥ) --Visarga is not dropped, but you will have to use the second rule of Visarga Sandhi now-- = असो देवः (aso devaḥ)
That (saḥ) is not (a) God (devaḥ)
final "ḥ" in saḥ and eṣaḥ + any vowel (except "a") = "ḥ" is dropped sometimes in poetry so that the requirements of the meter may be met; and subsequently you will have to use rules of Vowel Sandhi to combine the remaining "a"
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
सः (saḥ) + एव (eva) = स एव (sa eva) = सैव (saiva) --by applying the second Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi--
Only (eva) he (saḥ) or He (saḥ) indeed (eva) or simply He (saḥ eva) (and "eva" remaining untranslated and only giving emphasis to the phrase)

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 Concluding Remarks

This document is finished. There are still some other rules, but they are not very important. These 10 rules are the core of Visarga Sandhi. You should study them carefully. You do not need to learn them by heart. I do not encourage people to learn that way ever! You should just take some Sanskrit text on this site and analyze how the Sandhi rules are operating there. Thus, you will learn quickly. Note that even though all ten rules are important, just a few ones are very often used.

Well, it has been a hard task but it was worth my effort. To study Sandhi is a must if you want to translate Sanskrit text into English or any other language. As the words are changed according to these rules when inserted into a Sanskrit sentence, you will have to undo those changes in order to identify the original words. To actually undo that metamorphosis, you will have to know the process by which it was created. Got it? An example:

शिवोऽहम् (śivo'ham) --To translate this you have to identify the words which the sentence is compose of. If you search for "śivo" and "ham" in the dictionary, you will probably find nonsenses. Maybe you will find a certain connection between "śivo" and "śiva", but it is not always that simple. But if you realize that the second rule of Visarga Sandhi is operating here, you will come to know that "śivo'ham" consists of "śivaḥ" (Śiva) and "aham" (I). So, the translation is possible now: "I am Śiva". All work of a translator is (1) To identify the words in a text by applying the rules of Sandhi in the opposite direction, (2) To translate the text itself by applying the science of Sanskrit grammar, (3) Of course, the translator must have knowledge enough about the subject which is dealt with in the Sanskrit text. If not so, a disaster may occur, hehe! For example, every philosophy may use similar terms but with different meanings.

Therefore, Sandhi is of the essence, no doubt. That is why, however complicated and messy it may appear to be, you should study it over and over again, because is the key to translation. See you!

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 Further information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.