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 Learning Sanskrit - Pronunciation 9

Aphorisms (Section IV of Pātañjalayogasūtra-s)


 Introduction

Hi, this is Gabriel Pradīpaka once again. Here you are 34 aphorisms, which form the fourth out of four sections of the Patañjali's Yogasūtra-s (the primordial scripture in Yoga). You will be able to listen to Sanskrit language directly. Try to repeat the aphorism along with me. Besides, you will find a complete translation of the aphorism. So, this important document will help you to write and pronounce Sanskrit properly. Additionally, if you wish, you will start learning a celebrated scripture belonging to Yoga system. But remember that the meaning of these abstruse aphorisms is not given here. Only their translation is shown. If you are not interested in Yoga or even in Indian philosophy, just use the aphorisms to practice Sanskrit.

There is a measure unit called 'mātrā' or "time gap needed to pronounce a short vowel (like 'a')". Short vowels (a, i, u, ṛ, ḷ) last 1 mātrā, while long vowels (ā, ī, ū, ṝ) and diphthongs (e, ai, o, au) last 2 mātrā-s. In turn, Anusvāra ('ṁ') and Visarga ('ḥ') last 1/2 mātrā.

Have three documents at hand (print them if you can): Transliterating (2) (English), Sanskrit Alphabet and Conjuncts. You will need them very often.

To download the sounds, click on the respective icon placed below each of the aphorisms and then select the adequate choice. If you have the Quick Time plugin installed, it is possible that you cannot download the sound directly. To work this problem around, right-click on the icon and select "Save link as..." or something like that (the statements vary according to the different browsers). That is it! Obviously, you can alternately uninstall the Quick Time plugin, but maybe you might need it for some other things. So, it is your choice, not mine.

The sound files are "properly" named, of course, so that you can create, say, four folders (one for every section of this scripture), and quickly find the right sound you need to hear.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Fourth Section : On Liberation

जन्मौषधिमन्त्रतपःसमाधिजाः सिद्धयः॥१॥
Janmauṣadhimantratapaḥsamādhijāḥ siddhayaḥ||1||

The Siddhi-s or Supernatural Powers (siddhayaḥ) come (jāḥ) with birth (janma), (or they are achieved by means of) herbs (auṣadhi), mantra-s (mantra), austerities (tapas) (or) perfect concentration (samādhi)||1||


जात्यन्तरपरिणामः प्रकृत्यापूरात्॥२॥
Jātyantarapariṇāmaḥ prakṛtyāpūrāt||2||

The transformation (pariṇāmaḥ) into other (antara) species (jāti) (is accomplished) through the filling in (āpūrāt) of their essential nature (prakṛti)1||2||

1 In other words, the mould of the new species into which one wants to be transformed "fills in" (or permeate) the essential nature of the new body and organs and shapes them according to the respective parameters. It is as if one were to exert pressure on a pile of wet sand with a recipient. The wet sand will assume the form of that recipient, no doubt. The process of transformation from one species into another proceeds in a similar way.


निमित्तमप्रयोजकं प्रकृतीनां वरणभेदस्तु ततः क्षेत्रिकवत्॥३॥
Nimittamaprayojakaṁ prakṛtīnāṁ varaṇabhedastu tataḥ kṣetrikavat||3||

Cause (nimittam) (does not set) the essential natures (prakṛtīnām) into motion (aprayojakam) but (tu) it breaks down (bhedaḥ) the barrier (or mound) (varaṇa). For that reason (tatas), it is like (vat) the farmer (kṣetrika) (who breaks down a barrier or mound so that the water may flow into his field)||3||


निर्माणचित्तान्यस्मितामात्रात्॥४॥
Nirmāṇacittānyasmitāmātrāt||4||

The created (nirmāṇa) minds (cittāni) are (produced) from the pure (mātrāt) I-sense (asmitā)||4||


प्रवृत्तिभेदे प्रयोजकं चित्तमेकमनेकेषाम्॥५॥
Pravṛttibhede prayojakaṁ cittamekamanekeṣām||5||

(Only) one (ekam) mind (cittam) (sets) the many (created minds) (anekeṣām) into motion (prayojakam) during their various (bhede) activities (pravṛtti)||5||


तत्र ध्यानजमनाशयम्॥६॥
Tatra dhyānajamanāśayam||6||

Of these (created minds) (tatra), (those) brought about (jam) through meditation (dhyāna) are without any (an) latent impressions (āśayam)||6||


 कर्माशुक्लाकृष्णं योगिनस्त्रिविधमितरेषाम्॥७॥
Karmāśuklākṛṣṇaṁ yoginastrividhamitareṣām||7||

The action (karma) of a Yogī (yoginaḥ) is neither white (aśukla) nor black (akṛṣṇam), (while) those of others (itareṣām) are of three kinds (trividham)||7||


ततस्तद्विपाकानुगुणानामेवाभिव्यक्तिर्वासनानाम्॥८॥
Tatastadvipākānuguṇānāmevābhivyaktirvāsanānām||8||

From that --i.e. from those three aforesaid kinds of action-- (tatas), (there is) certainly (eva) manifestation (abhivyaktiḥ) of Vāsanā-s1 (vāsanānām) suitable --anuguṇa-- (anuguṇānām) to the consequences or results (vipāka) of that --i.e. of the three abovementioned types of action-- (tad)||8||

1 Careful here with the technical terms: Vāsanā-s are latent impressions of "feelings" produced by birth, life-span and experience of pleasure and pain. Also note that Vāsanā is not synonymous with Karmāśaya, despite both of them being latent impressions, since the latter arises out of "actions" or karma and not out of feelings like the former. There is a big difference between those two kinds of latent impressions. In turn, the word "saṁskāra" is commonly used to designate "latent impressions" in general. Use these terms properly, please.


जातिदेशकालव्यवहितानामप्यानन्तर्यं स्मृतिसंस्कारयोरेकरूपत्वात्॥९॥
Jātideśakālavyavahitānāmapyānantaryaṁ smṛtisaṁskārayorekarūpatvāt||9||

Because of similarity (ekarūpatvāt) between memory (smṛti) (and) latent impressions --saṁskāra-- (saṁskārayoḥ), (there is) immediate (ānantaryam) (emergence of Vāsanā-s) even though (api) separated --vyavahita-- (vyavahitānām) by birth (jāti), space or position (deśa) (and) time (kāla)||9||


तासामनादित्वं चाशिषो नित्यत्वात्॥१०॥
Tāsāmanāditvaṁ cāśiṣo nityatvāt||10||

Seeing that the desire for self-welfare --āśīs-- (āśiṣaḥ) is eternal --nitya-- (nityatvāt), those (Vāsanā-s) --tās-- (tāsām) (from which it emerges are) also (ca) beginningless (anāditvam)||10||


हेतुफलाश्रयालम्बनैः सङ्गृहीतत्वादेषामभावे तदभावः॥११॥
Hetuphalāśrayālambanaiḥ saṅgṛhītatvādeṣāmabhāve tadabhāvaḥ||11||

Since (Vāsanā) is held together (saṅgṛhītatvāt) by cause (hetu), fruit or result (phala), refuge (āśraya) (and) support --i.e. "ālambana" or the supporting object which attracts Vāsanā-- (ālambanaiḥ), in the absence (abhāve) of these --i.e. cause, fruit or result, refuge and support-- (eṣām), (there is also) absence (abhāvaḥ) of that (Vāsanā) (tad)||11||


अतीतानागतं स्वरूपतोऽस्त्यध्वभेदाद्धर्माणाम्॥१२॥
Atītānāgataṁ svarūpato'styadhvabhedāddharmāṇām||12||

Past (atīta) (and) future (anāgatam) exist (asti) in their essential forms (sva-rūpataḥ). (The difference is only) in the characteristics (of the forms) (dharmāṇām) at different (bhedāt) times or phases --i.e. past, present and future-- (adhva)||12||


ते व्यक्तसूक्ष्मा गुणात्मानः॥१३॥
Te vyaktasūkṣmā guṇātmānaḥ||13||

Those (characteristics) (te) are manifest (vyakta) (and) subtle --sūkṣma-- (sūkṣmāḥ) (and) consist (ātmānaḥ) of the (three) Guṇa-s (guṇa)||13||


 परिणामैकत्वाद्वस्तुतत्त्वम्॥१४॥
Pariṇāmaikatvādvastutattvam||14||

Due to the coordinated or coincidental (ekatvāt) mutation (of the three Guṇa-s) (pariṇāma), an object (vastu) appears to be something real (tattvam)||14||


वस्तुसाम्ये चित्तभेदात्तयोर्विभक्तः पन्थाः॥१५॥
Vastusāmye cittabhedāttayorvibhaktaḥ panthāḥ||15||

Despite sameness (sāmye) of objects (vastu), there is a different (vibhaktaḥ) way or path (panthāḥ) to them both --i.e. object and its inherent knowledge-- (tayoḥ) since there are different (bhedāt) minds (citta)||15||


न चैकचित्ततन्त्रं वस्तु तदप्रमाणकं तदा किं स्यात्॥१६॥
Na caikacittatantraṁ vastu tadapramāṇakaṁ tadā kiṁ syāt||16||

The object (vastu) certainly (ca) is not (na) dependent (tantram) on only one (eka) mind (citta), (because if so,) what (kim) would happen (syāt) when (the object) is not experienced or cognized (apramāṇakam) by that (mind) (tad) then (tadā)?||16||


तदुपरागापेक्षित्वाच्चित्तस्य वस्तु ज्ञाताज्ञातम्॥१७॥
Taduparāgāpekṣitvāccittasya vastu jñātājñātam||17||

The object (vastu) is known (jñāta) (or) unknown (ajñātam) to the mind (cittasya) according to how (apekṣitvāt) it colors (uparāga) that (very mind) (tad)||17||


सदा ज्ञाताश्चित्तवृत्तयस्तत्प्रभोः पुरुषस्यापरिणामित्वात्॥१८॥
Sadā jñātāścittavṛttayastatprabhoḥ puruṣasyāpariṇāmitvāt||18||

To the Lord or Master --i.e. Puruṣa-- (prabhoḥ) of that --i.e. of mind-- (tad), the mental (citta) modifications (vṛttayaḥ) (are) always (sadā) known (jñātāḥ) because of the immutability (apariṇāmitvāt) of (that very) Puruṣa (puruṣasya)||18||


न तत्स्वाभासं दृश्यत्वात्॥१९॥
Na tatsvābhāsaṁ dṛśyatvāt||19||

That (mind) (tad) is not (na) self-illuminating (sva-ābhāsam) since it is a knowable object (dṛśyatvāt)||19||


एकसमये चोभयानवधारणम्॥२०॥
Ekasamaye cobhayānavadhāraṇam||20||

And (ca) there is no cognizance (anavadhāraṇam) of them both --i.e. mind and knowable objects-- (ubhaya) simultaneously (ekasamaye)||20||


 चित्तान्तरदृश्ये बुद्धिबुद्धेरतिप्रसङ्गः स्मृतिसङ्करश्च॥२१॥
Cittāntaradṛśye buddhibuddheratiprasaṅgaḥ smṛtisaṅkaraśca||21||

(If one's own mind were to be) a knowable object (dṛśye) to another (antara) mind (citta), (then there would be) a undue extension (atiprasaṅgaḥ) of Buddhi(s) (buddheḥ) of Buddhi-s (buddhi) and (ca) intermixture (saṅkaraḥ) of memories (smṛti)||21||


चितेरप्रतिसङ्क्रमायास्तदाकारापत्तौ स्वबुद्धिसंवेदनम्॥२२॥
Citerapratisaṅkramāyāstadākārāpattau svabuddhisaṁvedanam||22||

When Citi or Consciousness (citeḥ), though untransmissible--apratisaṅkramā-- (apratisaṅkramāyāḥ), takes on --āpatti-- (āpattau) the form (ākāra) of that --i.e. of Buddhi-- (tad), (it becomes) the consciousness or intelligence (saṁvedanam) of one's own (sva) Buddhi (buddhi)||22||


द्रष्टृदृश्योपरक्तं चित्तं सर्वार्थम्॥२३॥
Draṣṭṛdṛśyoparaktaṁ cittaṁ sarvārtham||23||

Mind (cittam), being affected (uparaktam) by (both) the seer (draṣṭṛ) and the seen (dṛśya), (is) all-comprehensive (sarva-artham)||23||


तदसङ्ख्येयवासनाभिश्चित्रमपि परार्थं संहत्यकारित्वात्॥२४॥
Tadasaṅkhyeyavāsanābhiścitramapi parārthaṁ saṁhatyakāritvāt||24||

That (mind) (tad), although (api) variegated (citram) by innumerable (asaṅkhyeya) Vāsanā-s --i.e. latencies resulting from feelings, not actions-- (vāsanābhiḥ), (exists) for (artham) another --i.e. Puruṣa-- (para) inasmuch as (its constituents) act (kāritvāt) conjointly (saṁhatya)||24||


विशेषदर्शिन आत्मभावभावनाविनिवृत्तिः॥२५॥
Viśeṣadarśina ātmabhāvabhāvanāvinivṛttiḥ||25||

To one who knows (darśinaḥ) the special distinction (viśeṣa) --i.e. to one who has realized Puruṣa or the Self--, there is cessation (vinivṛttiḥ) of the practice of pondering (bhāvanā) over the nature (bhāva) of his (own) Self (ātma)||25||


तदा विवेकनिम्नङ्कैवल्यप्राग्भारञ्चित्तम्॥२६॥
Tadā vivekanimnaṅkaivalyaprāgbhārañcittam||26||

Then (tadā), the mind (cittam) inclines (nimnam) toward discriminative (knowledge) (viveka) (and) is directed (prāk-bhāram) toward complete Liberation (kaivalya)||26||


तच्छिद्रेषु प्रत्ययान्तराणि संस्कारेभ्यः॥२७॥
Tacchidreṣu pratyayāntarāṇi saṁskārebhyaḥ||27||

In the holes --i.e. in the breaches-- (chidreṣu) of that (discriminative knowledge) (tad), other (antarāṇi) mental modifications (pratyaya) (emerge) because of (residual) latencies (saṁskārebhyaḥ)||27||


 हानमेषां क्लेशवदुक्तम्॥२८॥
Hānameṣāṁ kleśavaduktam||28||

It is said (uktam) (that) the removal (hānam) of these --i.e. of the mental modifications mentioned in the previous aphorism-- (eṣām) is as (vat) (that of) the Kleśa-s or Afflictions (kleśa)||28||


प्रसङ्ख्यानेऽप्यकुसीदस्य सर्वथा विवेकख्यातेर्धर्ममेघः समाधिः॥२९॥
Prasaṅkhyāne'pyakusīdasya sarvathā vivekakhyāterdharmameghaḥ samādhiḥ||29||

One who, having attained discriminative (viveka) knowledge (khyāteḥ) in the highest degree and at all times (sarvathā), does not take an interest (akusīdasya) even (api) in (that) omniscience resulting from "Vivekajaṁ jñānam" or "Knowledge arising from discernment" --See III 54-- (prasaṅkhyāne), (experiences a type of) Samādhi or Perfect Concentration (samādhiḥ) (known as) Dharmamegha --i.e. Cloud of Virtue-- (dharma-meghaḥ)||29||


ततः क्लेशकर्मनिवृत्तिः॥३०॥
Tataḥ kleśakarmanivṛttiḥ||30||

From that --i.e. from Dharmamegha-- (tatas), there is cessation (nivṛttiḥ) of Afflictions (kleśa) (and) actions (karma)||30||


तदा सर्वावरणमलापेतस्य ज्ञानस्यानन्त्याज्ज्ञेयमल्पम्॥३१॥
Tadā sarvāvaraṇamalāpetasya jñānasyānantyājjñeyamalpam||31||

Then (tadā), due to the infinity (ānantyāt) of knowledge (jñānasya) free --apeta-- (apetasya) from all (sarva) veiling (āvaraṇa) impurities (mala), the knowable(s) (jñeyam) (appear to be) few (alpam)||31||


ततः कृतार्थानां परिणामक्रमसमाप्तिर्गुणानाम्॥३२॥
Tataḥ kṛtārthānāṁ pariṇāmakramasamāptirguṇānām||32||

From that (Dharmamegha or Cloud of Virtue) (tatas), when the Guṇa-s --i.e. "qualities of Prakṛti"-- (guṇānām) have accomplished their purpose (kṛta-arthānām), there is cessation (samāptiḥ) of the mutative (pariṇāma) sequence (krama) (of those very Guṇa-s)||32||


क्षणप्रतियोगी परिणामापरान्तनिर्ग्राह्यः क्रमः॥३३॥
Kṣaṇapratiyogī pariṇāmāparāntanirgrāhyaḥ kramaḥ||33||

Sequence (kramaḥ) is correlated (pratiyogī) to the moments (kṣaṇa) (and) is perceivable or noticeable (nirgrāhyaḥ) on the termination (aparānta) of the mutations (pariṇāma)||33||


पुरुषार्थशून्यानां गुणानां प्रतिप्रसवः कैवल्यं स्वरूपप्रतिष्ठा वा चितिशक्तिरिति॥३४॥
Puruṣārthaśūnyānāṁ guṇānāṁ pratiprasavaḥ kaivalyaṁ svarūpapratiṣṭhā vā citiśaktiriti||34||

Complete Liberation (kaivalyam) or (vā) the Power (śaktiḥ) of Consciousness (citi) established (pratiṣṭhā) in her own nature (sva-rūpa) (occurs when) the Guṇa-s --i.e. "qualities of Prakṛti"-- (guṇānām) return to their original source --i.e. Prakṛti-- (pratiprasavaḥ), as they have no (further) purpose to fulfill (artha-śūnyānām) for Puruṣa (puruṣa) --final "iti" indicates the end of this scripture--||34||

Here concludes the Fourth Section dealing with Liberation, and also the scripture itself.

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 Concluding remarks

A fourth document full of Yoga aphorisms in Sanskrit. Use it to keep learning Sanskrit language. Listen to the aphorisms over and over again, and then repeat them along with me. This practice will make sure that you are pronouncing Sanskrit in a proper way.

This is the fourth and "last" document of the series dedicated to the Pātañjalayogasūtra-s. Best wishes to you and be happy.

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 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.