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 Learning Sanskrit - Combination (7)

Consonant Sandhi -Part 3-


 Introduction

Hi, this is Gabriel Pradīpaka. This is the third and last document on Consonant Sandhi (Combination of a final consonant with an initial consonant or vowel) here. Once again, remember now the three kinds of Sandhi:

1) Vowel Combinations (Vowel Sandhi)

2) Visarga Combinations (Visarga Sandhi)

3) Consonant Combinations (Consonant Sandhi)

We will be studying the remaining ways to combine Consonants (Consonant Sandhi) in this document. Once again too, keep in mind the following table always:

Gradations of Vowel Alternation
Type Vowels
WEAKENED GRADATION (simple vowels) a i-ī u-ū ṛ-ṝ
STRENGTHENED GRADATION (Guṇa) a e o ar al
PROTRACTED GRADATION (Vṛddhi) ā ai au ār āl

Besides, it is available now a page with plenty of examples for every rule which has been taught. Click here.

Just a few Rules are left.... thank God! Prepare your army and... go ahead and conquer the last fortress of Sandhi, hehe!

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 17th Rule

An important rule that is commonly used:

17th Rule
When "n", at the end of a word (except "praśān" --a good and peaceful man--), is followed by "c", "ch", "ṭ", "ṭh", "t" or "th" (which are in turn followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h"), "s" is inserted in between and "n" itself is changed to "ṁ" or "m̐". Sometimes, you will also have to use the 4th Rule of Consonant Sandhi to polish the combination. This Rule is the perfect complement to the 11th and 12th Rules of Consonant Sandhi.

It is a very simple Rule, but sometimes you will have to use another Rule of Consonant Sandhi (specifically the 4th) in order to polish the combination. Look at the following table:

Table 16
"n" at the end of a word (except "praśān") and followed by "c", "ch", "ṭ", "ṭh", "t" or "th" --they themselves followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h"-- (this would be a complement to the 11th and 12th Rules of Consonant Sandhi really)
"n" (at the end of a word, except "praśān")
+
c, ch, ṭ, ṭh, t or t (provided that they are followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h")
=
"s" is inserted between them and "n" is transformed into "ṁ" or "m̐". In short, the final result is: "ṁs" or "m̐s"
And now a detailed explanation
First possibility: n is followed by c or ch ("s" --inserted in between-- must change to "ś" by the first sub-rule of the 4th Rule of Consonant Sandhi)
"n" (at the end of a word except "praśān") + c or ch (provided that they are followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h") = "ṁśc" or "m̐śc" or "ṁśch" or "m̐śch"
Second possibility: n is followed by or ṭh ("s" --inserted in between-- must change to "ṣ" by the second sub-rule of the 4th Rule of Consonant Sandhi)
"n" (at the end of a word except "praśān") + ṭ or ṭh (provided that they are followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h") = "ṁṣṭ" or "m̐ṣṭ" or "ṁṣṭh" or "m̐ṣṭh"
Third possibility: n is followed by t or th ("s" --inserted in between-- remains unchanged)
"n" (at the end of a word except "praśān") + t or th (provided that they are followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h") = "ṁst" or "m̐st" or "ṁsth" or "m̐sth"

A few examples of every possibility now:

"n" at the end of a word (except "praśān") + "c" or "ch" --they themselves followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h"-- = "ṁśc" or "m̐śc" ---- "ṁśch" or "m̐śch" (this would be a complement to the 11th and 12th Rules of Consonant Sandhi really)

I have marked with green color the resulting combination
योगिन् (yogin) + चर (cara) = योगिंश्चर or योगिँश्चर (yogiṁścara or yogim̐ścara) योगिन् (yogin) + छिन्धि (chindhi) = योगिंश्छिन्धि or योगिँश्छिन्धि (yogiṁśchindhi or yogim̐śchindhi)
Oh Yogī (yogin) roam about (cara)! Oh Yogī (yogin) cut off (chindhi)!

"n" at the end of a word (except "praśān") + "ṭ" or "ṭh" --they themselves followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h"-- = "ṁṣṭ" or "m̐ṣṭ" ---- "ṁṣṭh" or "m̐ṣṭh" (this would be a complement to the 11th and 12th Rules of Consonant Sandhi really)

I have marked with green color the resulting combination
बलिन् (balin) + टौटेश (ṭauṭeśa) = बलिंष्टौटेश or बलिँष्टौटेश (baliṁṣṭauṭeśa or balim̐ṣṭauṭeśa) बलिन् (balin) + ठक्कुर (ṭhakkura) = बलिंष्ठक्कुर or बलिँष्ठक्कुर (baliṁṣṭhakkura or balim̐ṣṭhakkura)
Oh powerful (balin) Ṭauṭeśa --a particular tutelary deity-- (ṭauṭeśa)! Oh powerful (balin) deity (ṭhakkura)!

"n" at the end of a word (except "praśān") + "t" or "th" --they themselves followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h"-- = "ṁst" or "m̐st" ---- "ṁsth" or "m̐sth" (this would be a complement to the 11th and 12th Rules of Consonant Sandhi really)

I have marked with green color the resulting combination
राजन् (rājan) + तत्र (tatra) = राजंस्तत्र or राजँस्तत्र (rājaṁstatra or rājam̐statra) अश्वान् (aśvān) + थुडामि (thuḍāmi) = अश्वांस्थुडामि or अश्वाँस्थुडामि (aśvāṁsthuḍāmi or aśvām̐sthuḍāmi)
Oh king (rājan), over there (tatra)! I cover (thuḍāmi) the horses (aśvān)

Exceptions

1) Either "n" is not at the end of a word or it belongs to "praśān" 2) "c, ch, ṭ, ṭh, t or th" are not followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h". If any of the two previous conditions occurs (or even both of them simultaneously), you are not allowed to use the present Rule.
I have not marked anything with green color, because there are no combinations at all
हन्त (hanta) and not हंस्त (haṁsta) (Because "n" is not at the end of a word) प्रशान् (praśān) + तोलयति (tolayati) = प्रशान्तोलयति (praśāntolayati) and not प्रशांस्तोलयति (praśāṁstolayati) (Because "n" belongs to "praśān")
An exclamation or inceptive particle (expressive of an exhortation to do anything or asking attention, or else expressive of grief, joy, pity, haste, benediction, etc.). Accepted translations: "Come on!", "Here!", "Look!", "See!", "Alas!", "Ah!", etc. A good and peaceful man (praśān) examines --with distrust-- (tolayati)
कर्मिन् (karmin) + त्सर (tsara) = कर्मिन्त्सर (karmintsara) or कर्मिन् त्सर (karmin tsara) and not कर्मिंस्त्सर (karmiṁstsara) [Because "t" in "tsara" is not followed by Vowel, Semivowel, Nasal or "h". In turn, note that the final "n" in "karmin" was not changed to Anusvāra --by the 12th Rule of Consonant Sandhi-- because it is at the end of a "pada" or inflected word ("karmin" is the Vocative case of "karmin" --workman--)] अबोधन् (abodhan) + त्सारुकाः (tsārukāḥ) = अबोधन्त्सारुकाः (abodhantsārukāḥ) or अबोधन् त्सारुकाः (abodhan tsārukāḥ) and not अबोधंस्त्सारुकाः (abodhaṁstsārukāḥ) [Because "t" in "tsārukhāḥ" is not followed by Vowel, Semivowel, Nasal or "h". In turn, note that the final "n" in "abodhan" was not changed to Anusvāra --by the 12th Rule of Consonant Sandhi-- because it is at the end of a "pada" or inflected word ("abodhan" is the 3rd person plural of the Imperfect tense of "budh" --to know--)]
Oh workman (karmin) approach stealthily (tsara)! (Obviously,) those who were skillful in handling a sword (tsārukāḥ) knew --how to do that-- (abodhan)

Take a nap and then study the following Rule.

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 18th Rule

An crucial rule that is commonly used:

18th Rule
When "n", comes after "r", "ṣ", "ṛ" or "ṝ", within the same word, is to be obligatorily changed to "ṇ" although a Vowel, a Semivowel (except "l"), a Nasal, a consonant belonging to the Guttural or Labial classes, or "h" comes between the abovementioned letters (i.e. "r", "ṣ", "ṛ" and "ṝ") and "n". Note that this transformation does not occur when "n" is at the end of a word, that is, the present Rule of Sandhi cannot be used with a final "n".

Please, pay attention now, inasmuch as this rule is extremely important and usual:

Table 17
In the same word (careful here!), despite a Vowel, a Semivowel (except "l"), a Nasal, a consonant belonging to the Guttural or Labial classes, or "h" comes between "r", "ṣ", "ṛ" or "ṝ" and "n", provided that "n" is not at the end of the word.
"r", "ṣ", "ṛ" or "ṝ"
+
"n" (not at the end of the word, careful here!)
=
"n" is to be obligatorily turned into "ṇ"

A few examples:

In the same word: "r", "ṣ", "ṛ" or "ṝ" + "n" = "ṇ" [even with a Vowel, a Semivowel (except "l"), a Nasal, a letter belonging to the Guttural or Labial classes, or "h" coming between them]

I have marked with green color the resulting combination
राम (rāma) + एन (ena) [Note that "ena" is a termination which is used to form the Instrumental case (singular) of the nouns and adjectives ending in "a". See documents in Declension series (under "Sanskrit" section) for more information. Also note that the final "a" in "rāma" is dropped before adding "ena"] = रामेण (rāmea) [Both "m" and the two Vowels ("ā" and "e") coming between do not affect the Sandhi. Therefore, the presente Rule of Sandhi can be used with no problem at all] हरि (hari) + इना (inā) [Note that "inā" is a termination which is used to form the Instrumental case (singular) of the masculine and neuter nouns and adjectives ending in "i". See documents in Declension series (under "Sanskrit" section) for more information. Also note that the final "i" in "hari" is dropped before adding "inā"] = हरिणा (hariā) (since "i" coming between is a Vowel, the present Rule of Sandhi can be used with no problem at all)
By or with Rāma (rāmeṇa) By or with Hari --Viṣṇu-- (hariṇā)
वारि (vāri) + इने (ine) [Note that "ine" is a termination which is used to form the Dative case (singular) of the neuter nouns and adjectives ending in "i". See documents in Declension series (under "Sanskrit" section) for more information. Also note that the final "i" in "vāri" is dropped before adding "ine"] = वारिणे (vārie) (since "i" coming between is a Vowel, the present Rule of Sandhi can be used with no problem at all)
सार (sāra) + आनाम् (ānām) [Note that "ānām" is a termination which is used to form the Genitive case (plural) of the nouns and adjectives ending in "a". See documents in Declension series (under "Sanskrit" section) for more information. Also note that the final "a" in "sāra" is dropped before adding "ānām"] = साराणाम् (sārāām) (since "ā" coming between is a Vowel, the present Rule of Sandhi can be used with no problem at all)
For, to or for the sake of the water (vāriṇe)
Of the essences (sārāṇām)

Exceptions

1) "r", "ṣ", "ṛ" or "ṝ" is in a word while "n" belongs to another word coming after
2) A letter which is not a Vowel, a Semivowel (except "l"), a Nasal, a consonant belonging to the Guttural or Labial classes, or "h"... in short, the following letters:
Palatals (c, ch, j, jh, ñ); Cerebrals (ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ); Dentals (t, th, d, dh, n); the Semivowel "l"; Sibilants (except "ṣ", obviously) when come between "r", "ṣ", "ṛ" or "ṝ" and "n" prevent from using the present Rule of Consonant Sandhi
3) "n" is at the end of the word

First possibility
I have not marked anything with green color, because there are no combinations at all
गुरु (guru) + नाथः (nātha) = गुरुनाथः (gurunāthaḥ) and not गुरुणाथः (guruṇāthaḥ) (Because "r" and "n" are in different words) राम (rāma) + नाम (nāma) = रामनाम (rāmanāma) and not रामणाम (rāmaṇāma) (Because "r" and "n" are in different words)
Lord (nāthaḥ) of the Guru-s (guru) The name (nāma) of Rāma (rāma)
Second possibility
I have not marked anything with green color, because there are no combinations at all
रुचि (ruci) + ईनाम् (īnām) [Note that "īnām" is a termination which is used to form the Genitive case (plural) of the masculine, feminine and neuter nouns and adjectives ending in "i". See documents in Declension series (under "Sanskrit" section) for more information. Also note that the final "i" in "ruci" is dropped before adding "īnām"] = रुचीनाम् (rucīnām) and not रुचीणाम् (rucīṇām) [Because a Palatal ("c") comes between "r" and "n"] कर्श्य (karśya) + आनाम (ānām) [Note that "ānām" is a termination which is used to form the Genitive case (plural) of the nouns and adjectives ending in "a". See documents in Declension series (under "Sanskrit" section) for more information. Also note that the final "a" in "karśya" is dropped before adding "ānām"] = कर्श्यानाम् (karśyānām) and not कर्श्याणाम् (karśyāṇām) [Because a "ś" comes between "r" and "n"]
Of the splendors (rucīnām) Of the turmeric plants (karśyānām)
Third possibility
I have not marked anything with green color, because there are no combinations at all
क्रम (krama) + आन् (ān) [Note that "ān" is a termination which is used to form the Accusative case (plural) of the masculine nouns and adjectives ending in "a". See documents in Declension series (under "Sanskrit" section) for more information. Also note that the final "a" in "krama" is dropped before adding "ān"] = क्रमान् (kramān) and not क्रमाण् (kramāṇ) (Because "n" is at the end the word)
To the successions (kramān)

It has been an easy nice rule, I think. Study it with special care because you will be using it all the time. Next rule now!:

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 19th Rule

Another important rule to be kept in mind:

19th Rule
(1st sub-rule) The consonant "c" is obligatorily inserted between "ch" and the preceding short vowel.
(2nd sub-rule) The consonant "c" is obligatorily inserted between "ch" and the preceding long vowel not standing at the end of "real" word, that is, the aforesaid long vowel must belong to a reduplicative syllable, etc. which are mostly used in order to form different kinds of verbal conjugations (Perfect, Aorist and the like).
(3rd sub-rule) The consonant "c" is optionally inserted between "ch" and a preceding long vowel standing at the end of a "real" word, except "ā" in "mā" and the preposition "ā".
(4th sub-rule) From the last statement, it is obvious that "c" is obligatorily inserted between "ch" and a preceding "mā" or the preposition "ā".

Pay attention, please:

Table 18
The consonant "ch" either (1) preceded by a short vowel, or (2) preceded by a long vowel not standing at the end of a "real" word, or (3) preceded by a long vowel (except "ā" in "mā" and the preposition "ā") standing at the end of a "real" word, or (4) preceded by "mā" or the preposition "ā"
a short vowel
+
"ch"
=
"c" is obligatorily inserted between them
a long vowel not standing
at the end of a "real" word
+ "ch" = "c" is obligatorily inserted between them
a long vowel standing at the end of a "real" word (except "ā" in "mā" and the preposition "ā")
+
"ch"
=
"c" is optionally inserted between them
"mā" or the preposition "ā"
+
"ch"
=
"c" is obligatorily inserted between them

Some examples:

1st sub-rule: a short vowel + "ch" = "c" is obligatorily inserted between them
2nd sub-rule: a long vowel not standing at the end of a "real" word + "ch" = "c"
is obligatorily inserted between them
3rd sub-rule: a long vowel standing at the end of a "real" word
(except "ā" in "mā" and the preposition "ā") + "ch" = "c" is optionally inserted between them

4th sub-rule: "mā" or the preposition "ā" + "ch" = "c" is obligatorily inserted between them

I have marked with green color the resulting combination
1st sub-rule
देव (deva) + छाया (chāyā) = देवच्छाया (devacchāyā) ("c" is obligatorily inserted) स्व (sva) + छाया (chāyā) = स्वच्छाया (svacchāyā) ("c" is obligatorily inserted)
The shadow (chāyā) of God (deva) One's own (sva) shadow (chāyā)
2nd sub-rule
Firstly, छिद् (chid) + यते (yate) = छिद्यते (chidyate) ("chid" means "to cut"; when "yate" is added to the root, the Passive Voice is formed: "it is cut" or "what is cut"). Now, to get to the Intensive or Frequentative form, "ce" is to be added. Note that "e" is a long vowel not standing at the end of a "real" word because "ce" is simply a reduplicative syllable. Thus: चे (ce) + छिद्यते (chidyate) = चेच्छिद्यते (cecchidyate) ("it is cut over and over again" or "what is cut over and over again") (Note also that "c" is obligatorily inserted because "e" in "ce" is not at the end of a "real" word)
"It is cut again and again" or else "what is cut again and again" (cecchidyate)
3rd sub-rule
देवी (devī) + छिन्नः (chinnaḥ) = देवीच्छिन्नः or देवीछिन्नः (devīcchinnaḥ or simply devīchinnaḥ) ("c" is optionally inserted because "ī" in "devī" is at the end of a real word) उमा (umā) + छुपति (chupati) = उमाच्छुपति or उमा छुपति (umācchupati or simply "umā chupati" -- Note that the words "umā" and "chupati" stand separate from each other in the latter case) ("c" is optionally inserted because "ā" in "umā" is at the end of a real word)
What is cut off (chinnaḥ) by the goddess (devī) Umā --Śiva's wife-- (umā) touches (chupati)
4th sub-rule
मा (mā) + छिदस् (chidas) = माच्छिदस् (mācchidas) ("c" is obligatorily inserted because the preceding "ā" belongs to "mā") [Also note that "chidas" comes from the Aorist "acchidas" --"you cut" (indefinite Past tense)-- from which the augment (initial "a") and "c" have been removed] (ā) + छन्नः (channaḥ) = आच्छन्नः (ācchannaḥ) ("c" is obligatorily inserted because the preceding "ā" belongs to "ā") [Also note that "channaḥ" means "covered"]
Do not (mā) cut (chidas)! Clothed (ācchannaḥ)

Good rule. Let us go on studying Sandhi!

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 20th Rule

It is not used commonly but still it is important:

20th Rule
(1st sub-rule) When "ṅ" and "ṇ" are followed by a Sibilant (ś, ṣ or s), "k" and "ṭ" are respectively suffixed to the former optionally.
(2nd sub-rule) Hard unaspirate consonants are optionally turned into hard aspirates when followed by a Sibilant.

Listen:

Table 19
First sub-rule: "ṅ" and "ṇ" followed by Sibilants
ṅ and ṇ
+
ś, ṣ or s
=
ṅkś, ṅkṣ and ṅks -- ṇṭś, ṇṭṣ and ṇṭs (this is optional)
Second sub-rule: Hard unaspirate consonants followed by Sibilants
k, c, ṭ, t and p
+
ś, ṣ or s
=
khś, khṣ, khs, chś, chṣ, chs, ṭhś, ṭhṣ, ṭhs, thś, thṣ, ths, phś, phṣ and phs, respectively (this is optional)
Besides, remember that "k" and "ṭ" optionally inserted between "ṅ" or "ṇ" and a Sibilant
--according to the first sub-rule--- in turn may be optionally changed to "kh" and "ṭh" by using the second sub-rule

Examples now:

1st and 2nd sub-rules being used together

I have marked with green color the resulting combination
प्राङ् (prāṅ) + षष्ठः (ṣaṣṭhaḥ) = प्राङ्क्षष्ठः (prāṅkṣaṣṭhaḥ) ("k" is optionally inserted). This can be polished even more, by combining "k" and "ṣ" into "kṣ". Thus: प्राङ्क्षष्ठः (prāṅkṣaṣṭhaḥ). Besides, the second sub-rule of the present Rule can be used optionally too: प्राङ्ख्षष्ठः (prāṅkhṣaṣṭhaḥ). (Note how "k" changed to "kh" according to the second sub-rule) सुगण् (sugaṇ) + षष्ठः (ṣaṣṭhaḥ) = सुगण्ट्षष्ठः (sugaṇṭṣaṣṭhaḥ) ("ṭ" is optionally inserted). Besides, the second sub-rule of the present Rule can be used optionally too: सुगण्ठ्षष्ठः (sugaṇṭhṣaṣṭhaḥ).
(Note how "ṭ" changed to "ṭh" according to the second sub-rule)
The sixth man (ṣaṣṭhaḥ) gone before (prāñc)
--"prāṅ" is the form assumed by "prāñc"
in compounds--
A sixth (ṣaṣṭhaḥ) good counter (sugaṇ)
Those changes are not obligatory, of course. You could have simply written: प्राङ्षष्ठः (prāṅṣaṣṭhaḥ) and सुगण्षष्ठः (sugaṇṣaṣṭhaḥ)

There are only a few examples indeed. Next rule!

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 21st Rule

It is a simple and important rule indeed:

21st Rule
(1st sub-rule) When followed by "l", any Dental letter (except "n" and "s") is changed to "l".
(2nd sub-rule) When followed by "l", "n" is to be turned into nasalized "l".

Pay attention:

Table 20
First sub-rule: "t, th, d, dh" followed by "l"
t, th, d, dh
+
l
=
"ll"
Second sub-rule: "n" followed by "l"
n
+
l
=
"m̐ll"

Examples now:

1st sub-rule

I have marked with green color the resulting combination
तत् (tat) + लोभः (lobhaḥ) = तल्लोभः (tallobhaḥ). (Note how "t" is simply changed to "l" according to the present first sub-rule) एतत् (etat) + लोपः (lopaḥ) = एतल्लोपः (etallopaḥ).
(Note how "t" is simply changed to "l" according to the present first sub-rule)
That (tat) covetousness (lobhaḥ) This (etat) transgression (lopaḥ)

2nd sub-rule

I have marked with green color the resulting combination
विद्वान् (vidvān) + लिखति (likhati) = विद्वाँल्लिखति (vidvām̐llikhati). [Note how "n" is changed to "m̐l" (nasalized "l") according to the present
second sub-rule]
श्रेयान् (śreyān) + लयः (layaḥ) = श्रेयाँल्लयः
(śreyām̐llayaḥ). [Note how "n" is changed to "m̐l" (nasalized "l") according to the present
second sub-rule]
A learned man (vidvān) writes (likhati) A better (śreyān) absorption or dissolution (layaḥ)

Next rule!

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 22nd Rule

It is a simple rule and not used very often really:

22nd Rule
When a Dental letter (except "s") is followed by "ṣ", it does not substitute its corresponding Cerebral. In other words, Dental letters (except "s") remain unaffected before "ṣ".

Listen:

Table 21
Any Dental except "s"
t, th, d, dh, n
+
=
tṣ, thṣ, dṣ, dhṣ, nṣ (and not "ṭṣ, ṭhṣ, ḍṣ, ḍhṣ, ṇṣ")

Examples now:

"t, th, d, dh, n" + "ṣ" = "tṣ, thṣ, dṣ, dhṣ, nṣ"

I have not marked anything with green color, because there are no combinations at all
सन् (san) + षष्ठः (ṣaṣṭhaḥ) = सन्षष्ठः (sanṣaṣṭhaḥ). (Note how "n" remains unaffected before "ṣ") तत् (etat) + षण्ढः (ṣaṇḍhaḥ) = तत्षण्ढः (tatṣaṇḍhaḥ). (Note how "t" remains unaffected before "ṣ")
A sixth (ṣaṣṭhaḥ) good man (san) That (tat) eunuch (ṣaṇḍhaḥ)

Very simple indeed!

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 23rd Rule

It is a very useful rule:

23rd Rule
When a Cerebral letter is followed by a Dental one within a word (careful!), the Dental consonant is changed to the corresponding Cerebral. This rule is a kind of complement to both the 7th Rule of Consonant Sandhi and (a)/(b) of the second sub-rule of the 4th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.

Pay attention, please:

Table 22
This rule must be complementarily used along with the 7th Rule of Consonant Sandhi and (a)/(b) of the second sub-rule of the 4th Rule of Consonant Sandhi. It holds good provided that the Sandhi takes place within a single word
ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, ṣ
+
t, th, d, dh, n, s
=
The Dentals are changed to the respective Cerebrals

Examples now:

"ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, ṣ" + "t, th, d, dh, n, s" = Dentals are turned into the respective Cerebrals
(within a single word, careful!)

I have marked with green color the resulting combination
द्वेष् (dveṣ) + ति (ti) = द्वेष्टि (dveṣṭi). (Note that "dveṣ" is the guṇated ("e" is the corresponding strengthening gradation --Guṇa-- for "i", See "Introduction" in this document) form of "dviṣ" --to hate-- which is used to properly conjugate the verb in third person singular) द्विष् (dviṣ) + (ta) = द्विष्ट (dviṣṭá). (Note that "ta" is added to the root "dviṣ" --to hate-- in order to form the past participle)
He or she hates (dveṣṭi) Hated (dviṣṭa)

And now the last rule!

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 24th Rule

Three useful sub-rules being compiled together:

24th Rule
(1st sub-rule) When "ś" is followed by "t" or "th", is changed to "ṣ". Afterward, provided that the Sandhi occurs within a single word, by 23rd Rule of Consonant Sandhi, "t" and "th" are changed to "ṭ" and "ṭh". If not, "t" and "th" remain unaffected according to the 7th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.
(2nd sub-rule) When a root or a noun, both of them ending in a soft aspirate consonant, are followed by a suffix or termination beginning with "t" or "th", the latter (i.e. "t" and "th") must be changed to "d" and "dh" respectively, which attract the aspiration. In other words, the soft aspirate consonant in the root or noun is transformed into the respective soft unaspirate one, while "d" is turned into "dh". Obviously, "dh" coming from "th" remains the same despite stealing the aspiration from the previous consonant, that is, there is no "dhh". This is a complement of the fourth sub-rule of the 13th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.
(3rd sub-rule) When a root ending in "h" is followed by a suffix or termination beginning with "t" or "th", the latter (i.e. "t" and "th") must be changed to "d" and "dh", respectively. In turn, "h" itself is transformed into "gh". And "d" or "dh" ultimately attracts the aspiration in "gh", that is, "d" changes to "dh" and "gh" to "g" (obviously, "dh" coming from "th" remains the same despite stealing the aspiration from "gh", that is, there is no "dhh")

Listen:

Table 23
First sub-rule: "ś" followed by "t" or "th"
ś
+
"t" or "th"
=
"ṣṭ" or "ṣṭh" (within a single word --23rd Rule of Consonant Sandhi--)
ś + "t" or "th" = "ṣt" or "ṣth" (if "ṣ" is at the end of a word and "t" or "th"
are at the beginning of another one --7th Rule of Consonant Sandhi--)
Second sub-rule: a root or noun, both of them ending in a soft aspirate consonant, and followed by a suffix or termination beginning with "t" or "th"
a root or noun, both of them ending in a soft aspirate (gh, jh, ḍh, dh or bh)
+
a suffix or termination beginning with "t" or "th"
=
gdh, jdh, ḍḍh ("dh" is changed to "ḍh" by 23rd Rule of Consonant Sandhi), ddh or bdh
Third sub-rule: a root ending in "h" and followed by a suffix or termination beginning with "t" or "th"
a root ending in "h" + a suffix or termination beginning with "t" or "th" = gdh

A few examples now:

1st sub-rule

I have marked with green color the resulting combination
दृश् (dṛś) + (ta) = दृष्त (driṣtá). And how it is a single word, I use the 23rd Rule of Consonant Sandhi. Thus: दृष्ट (driṣṭá) (Note how "ś" in "dṛś" --to see-- is firstly changed to "ṣ", and then "t" is transformed into "ṭ") उद्दिश् (uddiś) + (ta) = उद्दिष्त (uddiṣta). And how it is a single word, I use the 23rd Rule of Consonant Sandhi. Thus: उद्दिष्ट (uddiṣṭa)
(Note how "ś" in "uddiś" --to point out, to indicate-- is firstly changed to "ṣ", and then "t" is transformed into "ṭ")
Seen (dṛṣṭa) Pointed out, indicated (uddiṣṭa)

2nd sub-rule

I have marked with green color the resulting combination
लभ् (labh) + (ta) = लभ्द (labhda). Now, "d" attracts the aspiration in "bh": लब्ध (labdha) (Note how "t" is firstly transformed into "d" and then steals the aspiration of final "bh" in "labh" --to obtain, to get, to take, etc.--. Also note that "t" in "ta" must be changed to "d" in order to maintain a phonetic harmony, that is, a soft letter followed by a soft letter) सिध् (sidh) + (ta) = सिध्द (sidhda). Now, "d" attracts the aspiration in "dh": सिद्ध (siddha) (Note how "t" is firstly transformed into "d" and then steals the aspiration of final "dh" in "sidh" --to be accomplished, fulfilled, to be successful, etc.--. Also note that "t" in "ta" must be changed to "d" in order to maintain a phonetic harmony, that is, a soft letter followed by a soft letter)
Obtained, gotten, taken, etc. (labdha) Accomplished, fulfilled, successful, etc. (siddha)

3rd sub-rule

I have marked with green color the resulting combination
मुह् (muh) + (ta) = मुघ्द (mughda). Now, "d" attracts the aspiration in "gh": मुग्ध (mugdha) (Note that "h" is firstly turned into "gh". Then, "t" is transformed into "d" and steals the aspiration of final "gh" in "mugh". "Mugh" comes from "muh" --to become confused, to be perplexed, etc.--. Also note that "t" in "ta" must be changed to "d" in order to maintain a phonetic harmony, that is, a soft letter followed by a soft letter) स्निह् (snih) + (ta) = स्निघ्द (snighda). Now, "d" attracts the aspiration in "gh": स्निग्ध (snigdha) (Note that "h" is firstly turned into "gh". Then, "t" is transformed into "d" and steals the aspiration of final "gh" in "snigh". "Snigh" comes from "snih" --to be fond of, to feel affection for, etc.--. Also note that "t" in "ta" must be changed to "d" in order to maintain a phonetic harmony, that is, a soft letter followed by a soft letter)
Confused, perplexed, etc. (mugdha) Fond of, affectionate, etc. (snigdha)

Very useful rules indeed!

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 Concluding remarks

All important Sandhi Rules have been formulated. It has been a long ride really! Forty-eight rules of Sandhi have been enunciated, several of which contain a number of sub-rules. Take it easy because you are going to use only a handful of rules "commonly". Also, remember that many rules are "optional". As you practice Sandhi, you will note that the things are not so difficult as they appeared to be at first glance. Why?, because you learn to "feel" the Sandhi instead of merely learning by heart some rules of combination.

When I translate a Sanskrit text, I "understand" at first glance the way in which the words are arranged. I look at a compound, and I literally "see" all words forming it. Granted, to get to this point of skillfulness requires a lot of study and practice, but be sure that many times I am not conscious of the exact formulation of a particular rule, let alone the "number". For example, I see the word "buddha" --awakened, etc.-- and I know that the original root is "budh" --to be awake, etc.--. Nevertheless, I do not often remember the exact formulation of the rule (See third sub-rule of the 24th Rule of Sandhi Consonant in this document), let alone the number. In fact, I remember this one along with its "number" because I have just written it.

I am saying all this to you in order to calm you down. Do not learn by heart, just practice and strive to "understand" the core of Sandhi. After a certain time of study and practice, something occurs and the things are completely "clear" to you. From this point on, you do not need to force your intellect to understand a rule, because you feel how Sanskrit Sandhi works really. Best wishes and see you soon!

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 Further information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.