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 Learning Sanskrit - Declension (2)

Declension of nouns and adjectives ending in vowels - Part 2


 Introduction

Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka again. Now, we will keep studying declension of nouns and adjectives ending in vowels. The mechanics of declension is always the same, but the set of terminations may be somewhat different. Remember that there is an standard set of terminations which may be used as a group of "pattern" case endings. However, some modifications are likely to be made according to which vowel a particular noun or adjective is ending in. In the previous document, you could see that the difference between the "real" terminations of nouns and adjectives ending in "a" and that set of pattern case ending was abysmal. Still, in nouns and adjectives ending in "i", "ī", "u" and "ū", the gap is not so immense. Well, let us get down to work.

As a gift, you have also a document with many examples and another one with a list of terminations It is coming soon! so that you may fully understand Sanskrit declension.

A final advise: Go deep into the Sandhi rules in order to fully understand the declensions and the rest. Also, have always a printed copy of all Rules of Sandhi at hand.

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 Nouns and adjectives ending in "I"

First of all, here you are the table with the Kinds of Vowel Terminations:

Masculine nouns and adjectives
ending in
Feminine nouns and adjectives
ending in
Neuter nouns and adjectives
ending in
(a) (ā) -- (ā) (a)
(i) -- (i) (ī) (i)
(u) -- (u) (ū) (u)
(ṛ) -- (ṛ) -- (ṛ)

As you can see, the nouns and adjectives ending in "i" may be masculine, feminine or neuter. Before undertaking our study of the masculine ones, here you are the Patter Case Endings:

PATTERN CASE ENDINGS (MASCULINE AND FEMININE NOUNS)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative स्  / : अस्  / अः
s/ḥ au as/aḥ
Vocative It sometimes coincides with the prātipadika or crude form of the noun, sometimes with the Nominative case, at others it differs from both of them. अस्  / अः
au as/aḥ
Accusative अम् अस्  / अः
am au as/aḥ
Instrumental भ्याम् भिः
ā bhyām bhiḥ
Dative भ्याम् भ्यः
e bhyām bhyaḥ
Ablative अः भ्याम् भ्यः
aḥ bhyām bhyaḥ
Genitive अः ओः आम्
aḥ oḥ ām
Locative ओः सु
i oḥ su

PATTERN CASE ENDINGS (NEUTER NOUNS)

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative म्
m ī i
Vocative It sometimes coincides with the prātipadika or crude form of the noun, sometimes with the Nominative case, at others it differs from both of them.
ī i
Accusative म्
m ī i
The rest is like the masculine and feminine nouns

As you surely know, this set of pattern case endings is not always used to the letter in declension of nouns and adjectives ending in vowel. Therefore, use it wisely and carefully.

And now the "real" set of case terminations for masculine nouns and adjectives ending in "i":

ENDINGS FOR MASCULINE NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES ENDING IN "I"

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative इः अयः
iḥ ī ayaḥ
Vocative अयः
e ī ayaḥ
Accusative इम् ईन्
im ī īn
Instrumental इना इभ्याम् इभिः
inā ibhyām ibhiḥ
Dative अये इभ्याम् इभ्यः
aye ibhyām ibhyaḥ
Ablative एः इभ्याम् इभ्यः
eḥ ibhyām ibhyaḥ
Genitive एः योः ईनाम्
eḥ yoḥ īnām
Locative योः इषु
au yoḥ iṣu

An example of declension by using "Hari" --an epithet of Viṣṇu--:

CASES Singular Dual Plural
Nominative हरिः हरी हरयः
hariḥ harī harayaḥ
Hari The two Hari-s The Hari-s
Vocative हरे हरी हरयः
hare harī harayaḥ
O Hari! / Eh Hari! O both of Hari-s! / Eh both of Hari-s! O Hari-s! / Eh Hari-s!
Accusative हरिम् हरी हरीन्
harim harī harīn
To Hari To the two Hari-s To the Hari-s
Instrumental हरिणा हरिभ्याम् हरिभिः
hariṇā * haribhyām haribhiḥ
By/through/along with/etc. Hari By/through/along with/etc.
the two Hari-s
By/through/along with/etc.
the Hari-s
Dative हरये हरिभ्याम हरिभ्यः
haraye haribhyām haribhyaḥ
To/for/etc. Hari To/for/etc. the two Hari-s To/for/etc. the Hari-s
Ablative हरेः हरिभ्याम हरिभ्यः
hareḥ haribhyām haribhyaḥ
From/on account of/etc. Hari From/on account of/etc.
the two Hari-s
From/on account of/etc.
the Hari-s
Genitive हरेः हर्योः हरीणाम्
hareḥ haryoḥ harīṇām **
Of Hari / Hari's Of the two Hari-s Of the Hari-s / Hari-s'
Locative हरौ हर्योः हरिषु
harau haryoḥ hariṣu
In/on/etc. Hari In/on/etc. the two Hari-s In/on/etc. the Hari-s

* The original termination "inā" is to be changed to "iṇā" because of "r" in "Hari". See 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi for more information.

** The original termination "īnām" is to be changed to "īṇām" because of "r" in "Hari". See 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi for more information.

To use this endings you have merely to substitute any of them for the final "i" of a masculine noun or adjective. A few examples now by using "Hari" again:

हरिणा विश्वं रक्ष्यते -- Hariṇā viśvaṁ rakṣyate
The universe (viśvam) is protected (rakṣyate) by Hari (hariṇā).

हरौ विश्वं स्थाप्यते -- Harau viśvaṁ sthāpyate
The universe (viśvam) is established (sthāpyate) in Hari (harau).

हरेर्विश्वमुत्पन्नम् -- Harerviśvamutpannam
The universe (viśvam) has arisen (utpannam) from Hari (hareḥ). (Note that the original termination "eḥ" changed to "er" because "v" --a soft consonant-- is following. See the 7th Rule of Visarga Sandhi for more information)

to be continued

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 Further information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.