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 Learning Sanskrit - Verbs (3)

Verbs -Roots with unchangeable bases (Part 2)-


 Introduction

Hi, Gabriel Pradīpaka again. The mountain is becoming more and more dangerous. The present stage is also steep and risky... a real pest, hehe. However, the victory is yours if you do not die in the process, haha.

This document is the second part of the subject "Roots with unchangeable bases". These roots belong to the Gaṇa-s or Houses 1, 4, 6 and 10, and I can say that these four Houses comprise the vast majority of Sanskrit roots. In the first part of this study, you learnt how to conjugate those roots in both Present and Imperfect Tenses. Now, you will learn how to conjugate them in Imperative and Potential Moods. Remember that the category "Gaṇa" or "House" only affects those tenses and moods, that is, Present and Imperfect Tenses as well as Imperative and Potential Moods. But, for example, the Perfect Tense (remote past) is not affected by them. In other words, all roots will be dealt with in the same manner when you conjugate in that tense, despite they belong to this or that House. Aorist Tense (indefinite past) is another good example of what I am stating now, and so on.

Here you are the well-known table to form Guṇa and Vṛddhi:

Gradations of Vowel Alternation
Type Vowels
WEAKENED GRADATION (simple vowels) a i-ī u-ū ṛ-ṝ
STRENGTHENED GRADATION (Guṇa) a e o ar al
PROTRACTED GRADATION (Vṛddhi) ā ai au ār āl

As you know, in these 4 Houses (1, 4, 6 and 10), the original root or "Dhātu" must be somehow "strengthened" and turned into a base or "Aṅga" before adding any ending to it. Guṇa, and sometimes Vṛddhi too, are good means to do that. Do you remember the rules? Here you are just in case:

1) The base or "Aṅga" is unchangeable. Remember that the base is "generally" the very root but strengthened via Guṇa or Vṛddhi substitutions (or even some other alternative methods). Sometimes, the base coincides with the root.
2) The vowel "a" is added to the base to form a kind of "compound" base.

RULES TO FORM A BASE PROPERLY
GAṆA
(HOUSE OR CLASS)
HOW TO COMMON FEATURES
1st (Bhvādi) (a) If the root ends in a vowel, you have to turn this one into its Guṇa substitute.
(b) If the penultimate letter of the root is a "short" vowel, you have to transform this vowel into its Guṇa substitute.
The vowel "a" must be added to the base to form a kind of "compound" base. However, this very "a" is (1) dropped before terminations beginning with "a", and (2) is lengthened before terminations beginning with a Semivowel, a Nasal, "jh" or "bh".
Besides, (3) the penultimate "i", "u", "ṛ" or "ḷ" of a root must be lengthened when followed by "r" or "v" plus any consonant. Careful! Moreover, (4) when the vowel "ṝ" (long) occupies the penultimate or final position in a root and it does not take Guṇa or Vṛddhi or any other change (See 6th Gaṇa), is to be changed to "ir" or to "ur" (only if a Labial or "v" precedes). In turn, "i" in "ir" and "u" in "ur" must be lengthened when "ir" or "ur" is followed by a consonant.
Note that "y", which you add to a root of the 4th Gaṇa to form the base might turned out to be that "additional" consonant which is mentioned in (3) and (4).
4th (Divādi) (a) Any vowel present in the root remains unchanged [except penultimate "i", "u", "ṛ" and "ḷ" when followed by "r" or "v" plus a consonant; and a penultimate or final "ṝ". See (3) and (4) in Common Features].
(b) The Semivowel "y" is added to the root.
6th (Tudādi) (a) If the penultimate letter of a the root is a vowel (short or long), it remains unchanged [except penultimate "i", "u", "ṛ" and "ḷ" when followed by "r" or "v" plus a consonant; and a penultimate "ṝ". See (3) and (4) in Common Features].
(b) If the final letter of the root is "i", "ī", "u", "ū", "ṛ" or "ṝ", it changes to "iy", "uv", "riy" and "ir" respectively. In other words, "i" and "ī" change to "iy"; "u" and "ū" change to "uv", while "ṛ" changes to "riy" and "ṝ" changes to "ir".
10th (Curādi) (a) If the penultimate letter of the root is a "short" vowel (except "a"), it takes the Guṇa substitute.
(b) If the root has a final vowel or a penultimate "a", not prosodically long, all of them are to be turned into their respective Vṛddhi substitute.
[A vowel is prosodically long when it is followed by two or more consonants; e.g. "a" in "mantra". Note that the penultimate "a" in "mantra" is not originally long, but it becomes so, as it were, because it is followed by three consonants (ntr)]
(c) "ay" is to be ultimately added.
These are the rules. However, a few roots undergo some specific changes apart from those abovementioned. Do not worry, I will explain that to you in due course.

The same rules as in the Present Tense are to be followed to form the base in Imperative and Potential Moods. Thank God, there is no need to add an "augment" to the root as you did in the Imperfect Tense... but there will be some new gifts for you though... you will see. You surely thought that everything would be easy in the Imperative and Potential Moods, but no! Sanskrit grammar has once again managed to make your life even more miserable, hehe.

Ah!, two more things: 1) You will find here many examples of conjugation. 2) You will find a list of terminations here.

Let us get down to work!

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 How to conjugate Verbs with unchangeable bases in Imperative Mood

The Imperative Mood in Sanskrit, apart from expressing "command" as in English language... here you are some new gifts... may express courteous request, benediction, gentle advice, etc. Thus, even though I will give the common translation as command in the first place, I will add other possible translations too, haha... oh, my God! The alternative way to use the Imperative Mood follows these "simple" outlines... by "simple" I mean "complicated" as usual in Sanskrit grammar, hehe:

First person (singular, dual, plural): Apart from command, the Imperative Mood indicates question, capacity, necessity, etc. I will only show possible alternative translations expressing question, capacity and necessity.
Second person (singular, dual, plural): Apart from command, the Imperative Mood indicates entreaty, gentle advice, blessing, etc. I will only show possible alternative translations expressing entreaty, blessing and gentle advice.
Third person (singular, dual, plural): Apart from command, the Imperative Mood indicates blessing and gentle command. Of course, I will only show possible alternative translations expressing blessing and gentle command.

There are other additional ways to use Imperative Mood, but with these ones it is enough for the time being. Well, thank God you are studying verbs conjugated in Active Voice right now, because there are some alternative uses for the Imperative Mood in Passive Voice too. You will study Passive Voice later later later on, do not worry.

Besides, to make the things even worse, there is a new set of exclusive terminations for the Imperative Mood too. See below. And to ruin even your last hopes, hehe, there is an "optional" termination (tāt) that is solely used in the second and third persons singular (Parasmaipada) when you use the Imperative Mood in a benedictive way. Hey, get a soda and relax!, because it will be a long way...

Also, I want to tell you that I will extract the necessary information of the above table ("Rules to form a base properly"), in order to build a chart reminding you of the rules that govern every House or Gaṇa. Besides, I will also add a table, when necessary, containing the common features that the Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10 share with each other. Ah!, there is a chart with the respective terminations too. Well, it is time to start with the first Gaṇa (House or Class):

GENERAL RULES FOR GAṆA-S 1, 4, 6 AND 10
The vowel "a" must be added to the base to form a kind of "compound" base. However, this very "a" is (1) dropped before terminations beginning with "a", and (2) is lengthened before terminations beginning with a Semivowel, a Nasal, "jh" or "bh".Besides, (3) the penultimate "i", "u", "ṛ" or "ḷ" of a root must be lengthened when followed by "r" or "v" plus any consonant. Careful! Moreover, (4) when the vowel "ṝ" (long) occupies the penultimate or final position in a root and it does not take Guṇa or Vṛddhi or any other change (See 6th Gaṇa), is to be changed to "ir" or "ur" (only if a Labial or "v" precedes). In turn, "i" in "ir" and "u" in "ur" must be lengthened when "ir" or "ur" is followed by a consonant. Note that "y", which you add to a root of the 4th Gaṇa to form the base, might turned out to be that "additional" consonant which is mentioned in (3) and (4).
  TERMINATIONS OF THE IMPERATIVE MOOD FOR GAṆA-S 1, 4, 6 AND 10
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person āni āva āma ai āvahai āmahai
2nd Person nothing or "tāt"1 tam ta sva ithām dhvam
3rd Person tu or "tāt"1 tām antu tām itām antām
1 The termination "tāt" is "optionally" used when you want to express a blessing

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 CONJUGATING ROOTS BELONGING TO GAṆA 1 IN THE Imperative Mood

I will be using the same roots as in the Present and Imperfect Tenses for the sake of convenience... or do you want new roots and form the base again? No, my God. Well, thus, I will not have to form the compound base again, and I will be able to focus only on how to conjugate a root in the Imperative Mood. Let us begin. Here you are the special features of the first Gaṇa:

SPECIAL RULES FOR GAṆA 1
(a) If the root ends in a vowel, you have to turn this one into its Guṇa substitute.
(b) If the penultimate letter of the root is a "short" vowel, you have to transform this vowel into its Guṇa substitute.

पुर्व् -Purv (to fill)- [only Parasmaipada]

The compound base is "pūrva" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "pūrva" (compound base) now. A last thing: I will be using "to let" as an auxiliary verb in order to form the first and third persons of the Imperative Mood. The word "must" may also be included, for example: "I must fill" instead of "let me fill". In fact, even though "must" might be used with all the three persons, is specially used with the first person. In turn, the word "may" is generally used in a benedictive way but... see in the chart:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA (usual way to translate)
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. pūrvāṇi1 pūrvāva pūrvāma
let me fill let us both fill let us fill
2nd P. pūrva or pūrvatāt2 pūrvatam pūrvata
fill fill, both of you fill
3rd P. pūrvatu or pūrvatāt2 pūrvatām pūrvantu3
let him/her/it fill let them both fill let them fill
Pers. Alternative ways to translate according to a particular context
(note that the auxiliary words I have utilized to express entreaty, necessity, gentle command, etc., that is, "oh", "must", etc., are generally used... but perhaps you will have to use other terms to express the same thing according to the context. For example: "oh God", "have to", etc. respectively. You may also include exclamation point to emphasize. Hopefully, you have understood my point)
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. pūrvāṇi1 pūrvāva pūrvāma
question should I fill? should we both fill? should we fill?
capacity I am able to/can fill we both are able to/can fill we are able to/can fill
necessity I must fill we both must fill we must fill
2nd P. pūrva or pūrvatāt2 pūrvatam pūrvata
entreaty oh, fill! oh, both of you, fill! oh, fill!
blessing may you fill may you both fill may you fill
gentle
advice
you should fill you both should fill you should fill
3rd P. pūrvatu or pūrvatāt2 pūrvatām pūrvantu3
blessing may he/she/it fill may they both fill may they fill
gentle
command
may4 he/she/it fill may4 they both fill may4 they fill
1 Original "n" in the termination "āni" changes to "āṇi" by 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.
2 The termination "tāt" is only used if you are using the Imperative Mood in a benedictive sense (see "blessing" row in 2nd and 3rd persons).
3 Final "a" in the compound base "pūrva" must be dropped before terminations beginning with "a" -See (1) in the above table dealing with "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10"-. Thus, the final result is "pūrvantu" and not "pūrvāntu".
4 The term "may" is not used here to convey a blessing (e.g. "may my worship bear fruit" in a benedictive sense, that is, "I beg God to grant me the fruit of my worship" and the like), but to indicate a gentle command (e.g. "let my worship bear fruit", but in a gentle way, not as a mere "command"; it is a firm wish and hope that my worship will lastly bear fruit, got it? It might be translated like this: "let my worship bear fruit... this is my sincere wish" and so on).

लष्   -Laṣ (to desire)- [Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada]

The compound base is "laṣa" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "laṣa" (compound base) now. A last thing: I will be using "to let" as an auxiliary verb in order to form the first and third persons of the Imperative Mood. The word "must" may also be included, for example: "I must desire" instead of "let me desire". In fact, even though "must" might be used with all the three persons, it is specially used with the first person. In turn, the word "may" is generally used in a benedictive way but... see in the chart:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA
(usual way to translate)
ĀTMANEPADA
(usual way to translate)
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. laṣāṇi1 laṣāva laṣāma laṣai4 laṣāvahai laṣāmahai
let me desire let us both desire let us desire let me desire let us both desire let us desire
2nd P. laṣa or laṣatāt2 laṣatam laṣata laṣasva laṣethām5 laṣadhvam
desire desire, both of you desire desire desire, both of you desire
3rd P. laṣatu or laṣatāt2 laṣatām laṣantu3 laṣatām laṣetām5 laṣantām3
let him/her/it desire let them both desire let them desire let him/her/it desire let them both desire let them desire
Pers. Alternative ways to translate according to a particular context
(note that the auxiliary words I have utilized to express entreaty, necessity, gentle command, etc., that is, "oh", "must", etc., are generally used... but perhaps you will have to use other terms to express the same thing according to the context. For example: "oh God", "have to", etc. respectively. You may also include exclamation point to emphasize. Hopefully, you have understood my point)
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. laṣāṇi1 laṣāva laṣāma laṣai4 laṣāvahai laṣāmahai
question should I desire? should we both desire? should we desire? should I desire? should we both desire? should we desire?
capacity I am able to/can desire we both are able to/can desire we are able to/can desire I am able to/can desire we both are able to/can desire we are able to/can desire
necessity I must desire we both must desire we must desire I must desire we both must desire we must desire
2nd P. laṣa or laṣatāt2 laṣatam laṣata laṣasva laṣethām5 laṣadhvam
entreaty oh, desire! oh, both of you, desire! oh, desire! oh, desire! oh, both of you, desire! oh, desire!
blessing may you desire may you both desire may you desire may you desire may you both desire may you desire
gentle
advice
you should desire you both should desire you should desire you should desire you both should desire you should desire
3rd P. laṣatu or laṣatāt2 laṣatām laṣantu3 laṣatām laṣetām5 laṣantām3
blessing may he/she/it desire may they both desire may they desire may he/she/it desire may they both desire may they desire
gentle
command
may6 he/she/it desire may6 they both desire may6 they desire may6 he/she/it desire may6 they both desire may6 they desire
1 Original "n" in the termination "āni" changes to "āṇi" by 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.
2 The termination "tāt" is only used if you are using the Imperative Mood in a benedictive sense (see "blessing" row in 2nd and 3rd persons).
3 Final "a" in the compound base "laṣa" must be dropped before terminations beginning with "a" -See (1) in the above table dealing with "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10"-. Thus, the final result is "laṣantu" and "laṣantām" and not "laṣāntu" and "laṣāntām".
4 Final "a" in the compound base "laṣa" plus the termination "ai" is again "ai" by 5th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
5 Final "a" in "laṣa" (compound base) + "ithām" and "itām" (Ātmanepada terminations) = "ethām" and "etām" respectively, as "a" plus "i" is "e" by 2nd Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
6 The term "may" is not used here to convey a blessing (e.g. "may my worship bear fruit" in a benedictive sense, that is, "I beg God to grant me the fruit of my worship" and the like), but to indicate a gentle command (e.g. "let my worship bear fruit", but in a gentle way, not as a mere "command"; it is a firm wish and hope that my worship will lastly bear fruit, got it? It might be alternatively translated like this: "let my worship bear fruit... this is my sincere wish" and so on).

ईक्ष्  -īkṣ (to see)- [only Ātmanepada]

The compound base is "īkṣa" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "īkṣa" (compound base) now. A last thing: I will be using "to let" as an auxiliary verb in order to form the first and third persons of the Imperative Mood. The word "must" may also be included, for example: "I must see" instead of "let me see". In fact, even though "must" might be used with all the three persons, it is specially used with the first person. In turn, the word "may" is generally used in a benedictive way but... see in the chart:

Pers. ĀTMANEPADA (usual way to translate)
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. īkṣai1 īkṣāvahai īkṣāmahai
let me see let us both see let us see
2nd P. īkṣasva īkṣethām2 īkṣadhvam
see see, both of you see
3rd P. īkṣatām īkṣetām2 īkṣantām3
let him/her/it see let them both see let them see
Pers. Alternative ways to translate according to a particular context
(note that the auxiliary words I have utilized to express entreaty, necessity, gentle command, etc., that is, "oh", "must", etc., are generally used... but perhaps you will have to use other terms to express the same thing according to the context. For example: "oh God", "have to", etc. respectively. You may also include exclamation point to emphasize. Hopefully, you have understood my point)
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. īkṣai1 īkṣāvahai īkṣāmahai
question should I see? should we both see? should we see?
capacity I am able to/can see we both are able to/can see we are able to/can see
necessity I must see we both must see we must see
2nd P. īkṣasva īkṣethām2 īkṣadhvam
entreaty oh, see! oh, both of you, see! oh, see!
blessing may you see may you both see may you see
gentle
advice
you should see you both should see you should see
3rd P. īkṣatām īkṣetām2 īkṣantām3
blessing may he/she/it see may they both see may they see
gentle
command
may4 he/she/it see may4 they both see may4 they see
1 Final "a" in the compound base "īkṣa" plus the termination "ai" is again "ai" by 5th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
2 Final "a" in "īkṣa" (compound base) + "ithām" and "itām" (Ātmanepada terminations) = "ethām" and "etām" respectively, as "a" plus "i" is "e" by 2nd Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
3 Final "a" in the compound base "īkṣa" must be dropped before terminations beginning with "a" -See (1) in the above table dealing with "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10"-. Thus, the final result is "īkṣantām" and not "īkṣāntām".
4 The term "may" is not used here to convey a blessing (e.g. "may my worship bear fruit" in a benedictive sense, that is, "I beg God to grant me the fruit of my worship" and the like), but to indicate a gentle command (e.g. "let my worship bear fruit", but in a gentle way, not as a mere "command"; it is a firm wish and hope that my worship will lastly bear fruit, got it? It might be alternatively translated like this: "let my worship bear fruit... this is my sincere wish" and so on).

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 CONJUGATING ROOTS BELONGING TO GAṆA 4 IN THE Imperative Mood

Here you are the special features of the fourth Gaṇa, which you are about to study:

SPECIAL RULES FOR GAṆA 4
(a) Any vowel present in the root remains unchanged [except penultimate "i", "u", "ṛ" and "ḷ" when followed by "r" or "v" plus a consonant; and a penultimate or final "ṝ". See (3) and (4) in the "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10" table].
(b) The Semivowel "y" is added to the root.

तुष्   -Tuṣ (to be pleased)- [generally Parasmaipada... although metrically Ātmanepada is also included]

The compound base is "tuṣya" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "tuṣya" (compound base) now. A last thing: I will be using "to let" as an auxiliary verb in order to form the first and third persons of the Imperative Mood. The word "must" may also be included, for example: "I must be pleased" instead of "let me be pleased". In fact, even though "must" might be used with all the three persons, is specially used with the first person. In turn, the word "may" is generally used in a benedictive way but... see in the chart:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA (usual way to translate)
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. tuṣyāṇi1 tuṣyāva tuṣyāma
let me be pleased let us both be pleased let us be pleased
2nd P. tuṣya or tuṣyatāt2 tuṣyatam tuṣyata
be pleased be pleased, both of you be pleased
3rd P. tuṣyatu or tuṣyatāt2 tuṣyatām tuṣyantu3
let him/her/it be pleased let them both be pleased let them be pleased
Pers. Alternative ways to translate according to a particular context
(note that the auxiliary words I have utilized to express entreaty, necessity, gentle command, etc., that is, "oh", "must", etc., are generally used... but perhaps you will have to use other terms to express the same thing according to the context. For example: "oh God", "have to", etc. respectively. You may also include exclamation point to emphasize. Hopefully, you have understood my point)
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. tuṣyāṇi1 tuṣyāva tuṣyāma
question should I be pleased? should we both be pleased? should we be pleased?
capacity I am able to/can be pleased we both are able to/can be pleased we are able to/can be pleased
necessity I must be pleased we both must be pleased we must be pleased
2nd P. tuṣya or tuṣyatāt2 tuṣyatam tuṣyata
entreaty oh, be pleased! oh, both of you, be pleased! oh, be pleased!
blessing may you be pleased may you both be pleased may you be pleased
gentle
advice
you should be pleased you both should be pleased you should be pleased
3rd P. tuṣyatu or tuṣyatāt2 tuṣyatām tuṣyantu3
blessing may he/she/it be pleased may they both be pleased may they be pleased
gentle
command
may4 he/she/it be pleased may4 they both be pleased may4 they be pleased
1 Original "n" in the termination "āni" changes to "āṇi" by 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.
2 The termination "tāt" is only used if you are using the Imperative Mood in a benedictive sense (see "blessing" row in 2nd and 3rd persons).
3 Final "a" in the compound base "tuṣya" must be dropped before terminations beginning with "a" -See (1) in the above table dealing with "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10"-. Thus, the final result is "tuṣyantu" and not "tuṣyāntu".
4 The term "may" is not used here to convey a blessing (e.g. "may my worship bear fruit" in a benedictive sense, that is, "I beg God to grant me the fruit of my worship" and the like), but to indicate a gentle command (e.g. "let my worship bear fruit", but in a gentle way, not as a mere "command"; it is a firm wish and hope that my worship will lastly bear fruit, got it? It might be translated like this: "let my worship bear fruit... this is my sincere wish" and so on).

दिव्   -Div (to shine)- [generally Parasmaipada... but Ātmanepada in Ṛgveda (The two pada-s are included for the sake of convenience in this study)]

The compound base is "dīvya" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "dīvya" (compound base) now. A last thing: I will be using "to let" as an auxiliary verb in order to form the first and third persons of the Imperative Mood. The word "must" may also be included, for example: "I must shine" instead of "let me shine". In fact, even though "must" might be used with all the three persons, is specially used with the first person. In turn, the word "may" is generally used in a benedictive way but... see in the chart:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA
(usual way to translate)
ĀTMANEPADA
(usual way to translate)
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. dīvyāni dīvyāva dīvyāma dīvyai3 dīvyāvahai dīvyāmahai
let me shine let us both shine let us shine let me shine let us both shine let us shine
2nd P. dīvya or dīvyatāt1 dīvyatam dīvyata dīvyasva dīvyethām4 dīvyadhvam
shine shine, both of you shine shine shine, both of you shine
3rd P. dīvyatu or dīvyatāt1 dīvyatām dīvyantu2 dīvyatām dīvyetām4 dīvyantām2
let him/her/it shine let them both shine let them shine let him/her/it shine let them both shine let them shine
Pers. Alternative ways to translate according to a particular context
(note that the auxiliary words I have utilized to express entreaty, necessity, gentle command, etc., that is, "oh", "must", etc., are generally used... but perhaps you will have to use other terms to express the same thing according to the context. For example: "oh God", "have to", etc. respectively. You may also include exclamation point to emphasize. Hopefully, you have understood my point)
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. dīvyāni dīvyāva dīvyāma dīvyai3 dīvyāvahai dīvyāmahai
question should I shine? should we both shine? should we shine? should I shine? should we both shine? should we shine?
capacity I am able to/can shine we both are able to/can shine we are able to/can shine I am able to/can shine we both are able to/can shine we are able to/can shine
necessity I must shine we both must shine we must shine I must shine we both must shine we must shine
2nd P. dīvya or dīvyatāt1 dīvyatam dīvyata dīvyasva dīvyethām4 dīvyadhvam
entreaty oh, shine! oh, both of you, shine! oh, shine! oh, shine! oh, both of you, shine! oh, shine!
blessing may you shine may you both shine may you shine may you shine may you both shine may you shine
gentle
advice
you should shine you both should shine you should shine you should shine you both should shine you should shine
3rd P. dīvyatu or dīvyatāt1 dīvyatām dīvyantu2 dīvyatām dīvyetām4 dīvyantām2
blessing may he/she/it shine may they both shine may they shine may he/she/it shine may they both shine may they shine
gentle
command
may5 he/she/it shine may5 they both shine may5 they shine may5 he/she/it shine may5 they both shine may5 they shine
1 The termination "tāt" is only used if you are using the Imperative Mood in a benedictive sense (see "blessing" row in 2nd and 3rd persons).
2 Final "a" in the compound base "dīvya" must be dropped before terminations beginning with "a" -See (1) in the above table dealing with "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10"-. Thus, the final result is "dīvyantu" and "dīvyantām" and not "dīvyāntu" and "dīvyāntām".
3 Final "a" in the compound base "dīvya" plus the termination "ai" is again "ai" by 5th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
4 Final "a" in "dīvya" (compound base) + "ithām" and "itām" (Ātmanepada terminations) = "ethām" and "etām" respectively, as "a" plus "i" is "e" by 2nd Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
5 The term "may" is not used here to convey a blessing (e.g. "may my worship bear fruit" in a benedictive sense, that is, "I beg God to grant me the fruit of my worship" and the like), but to indicate a gentle command (e.g. "let my worship bear fruit", but in a gentle way, not as a mere "command"; it is a firm wish and hope that my worship will lastly bear fruit, got it? It might be alternatively translated like this: "let my worship bear fruit... this is my sincere wish" and so on).

दो   -Do (to cut)- [only Parasmaipada]

The compound base is "dya" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "dya" (compound base) now. A last thing: I will be using "to let" as an auxiliary verb in order to form the first and third persons of the Imperative Mood. The word "must" may also be included, for example: "I must cut" instead of "let me cut". In fact, even though "must" might be used with all the three persons, is specially used with the first person. In turn, the word "may" is generally used in a benedictive way but... see in the chart:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA (usual way to translate)
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. dyāni dyāva dyāma
let me cut let us both cut let us cut
2nd P. dya or dyatāt1 dyatam dyata
cut cut, both of you cut
3rd P. dyatu or dyatāt1 dyatām dyantu2
let him/her/it cut let them both cut let them cut
Pers. Alternative ways to translate according to a particular context
(note that the auxiliary words I have utilized to express entreaty, necessity, gentle command, etc., that is, "oh", "must", etc., are generally used... but perhaps you will have to use other terms to express the same thing according to the context. For example: "oh God", "have to", etc. respectively. You may also include exclamation point to emphasize. Hopefully, you have understood my point)
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. dyāni dyāva dyāma
question should I cut? should we both cut? should we cut?
capacity I am able to/can cut we both are able to/can cut we are able to/can cut
necessity I must cut we both must cut we must cut
2nd P. dya or dyatāt1 dyatam dyata
entreaty oh, cut! oh, both of you, cut! oh, cut!
blessing may you cut may you both cut may you cut
gentle
advice
you should cut you both should cut you should cut
3rd P. dyatu or dyatāt1 dyatām dyantu2
blessing may he/she/it cut may they both cut may they cut
gentle
command
may3 he/she/it cut may3 they both cut may3 they cut
1 The termination "tāt" is only used if you are using the Imperative Mood in a benedictive sense (see "blessing" row in 2nd and 3rd persons).
2 Final "a" in the compound base "dya" must be dropped before terminations beginning with "a" -See (1) in the above table dealing with "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10"-. Thus, the final result is "dyantu" and not "dyāntu".
3 The term "may" is not used here to convey a blessing (e.g. "may my worship bear fruit" in a benedictive sense, that is, "I beg God to grant me the fruit of my worship" and the like), but to indicate a gentle command (e.g. "let my worship bear fruit", but in a gentle way, not as a mere "command"; it is a firm wish and hope that my worship will lastly bear fruit, got it? It might be translated like this: "let my worship bear fruit... this is my sincere wish" and so on).

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 CONJUGATING ROOTS BELONGING TO GAṆA 6 IN THE Imperative Mood

Here you are the special features of the sixth Gaṇa, which you are about to study:

SPECIAL RULES FOR GAṆA 6
(a) If the penultimate letter of a the root is a vowel (short or long), it remains unchanged [except penultimate "i", "u", "ṛ" and "ḷ" when followed by "r" or "v" plus a consonant; and a penultimate "ṝ". See (3) and (4) in the "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10" table].
(b) If the final letter of the root is "i", "ī", "u", "ū", "ṛ" or "ṝ", it changes to "iy", "uv", "riy" and "ir" respectively. In other words, "i" and "ī" change to "iy"; "u" and "ū" change to "uv", while "ṛ" changes to "riy" and "ṝ" changes to "ir".

उञ्छ्  -Uñch (to gather)- [only Parasmaipada]

The compound base is "uñcha" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "uñcha" (compound base) now. A last thing: I will be using "to let" as an auxiliary verb in order to form the first and third persons of the Imperative Mood. The word "must" may also be included, for example: "I must be pleased" instead of "let me be pleased". In fact, even though "must" might be used with all the three persons, is specially used with the first person. In turn, the word "may" is generally used in a benedictive way but... see in the chart:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA (usual way to translate)
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. uñchāni uñchāva uñchāma
let me gather let us both gather let us gather
2nd P. uñcha or uñchatāt1 uñchatam uñchata
gather gather, both of you gather
3rd P. uñchatu or uñchatāt1 uñchatām uñchantu2
let him/her/it gather let them both gather let them gather
Pers. Alternative ways to translate according to a particular context
(note that the auxiliary words I have utilized to express entreaty, necessity, gentle command, etc., that is, "oh", "must", etc., are generally used... but perhaps you will have to use other terms to express the same thing according to the context. For example: "oh God", "have to", etc. respectively. You may also include exclamation point to emphasize. Hopefully, you have understood my point)
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. uñchāni uñchāva uñchāma
question should I gather? should we both gather? should we gather?
capacity I am able to/can gather we both are able to/can gather we are able to/can gather
necessity I must gather we both must gather we must gather
2nd P. uñcha or uñchatāt1 uñchatam uñchata
entreaty oh, gather! oh, both of you, gather! oh, gather!
blessing may you gather may you both gather may you gather
gentle
advice
you should gather you both should gather you should gather
3rd P. uñchatu or uñchatāt1 uñchatām uñchantu2
blessing may he/she/it gather may they both gather may they gather
gentle
command
may3 he/she/it gather may3 they both gather may3 they gather
1 The termination "tāt" is only used if you are using the Imperative Mood in a benedictive sense (see "blessing" row in 2nd and 3rd persons).
2 Final "a" in the compound base "uñcha" must be dropped before terminations beginning with "a" -See (1) in the above table dealing with "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10"-. Thus, the final result is "uñchantu" and not "uñchāntu".
3 The term "may" is not used here to convey a blessing (e.g. "may my worship bear fruit" in a benedictive sense, that is, "I beg God to grant me the fruit of my worship" and the like), but to indicate a gentle command (e.g. "let my worship bear fruit", but in a gentle way, not as a mere "command"; it is a firm wish and hope that my worship will lastly bear fruit, got it? It might be translated like this: "let my worship bear fruit... this is my sincere wish" and so on).

सू  -Sū (to set in motion)- [generally Parasmaipada... but also Ātmanepada in the Brāhmaṇa portion of the Veda (The two pada-s are included for the sake of convenience in this study)]

The compound base is "suva" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "suva" (compound base) now. A last thing: I will be using "to let" as an auxiliary verb in order to form the first and third persons of the Imperative Mood. The word "must" may also be included, for example: "I must set in motion" instead of "let me set in motion". In fact, even though "must" might be used with all the three persons, is specially used with the first person. In turn, the word "may" is generally used in a benedictive way but... see in the chart:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA
(usual way to translate)
ĀTMANEPADA
(usual way to translate)
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. suvāni suvāva suvāma suvai3 suvāvahai suvāmahai
let me set in motion let us both set in motion let us set in motion let me set in motion let us both set in motion let us set in motion
2nd P. suva or suvatāt1 suvatam suvata suvasva suvethām4 suvadhvam
set in motion set in motion, both of you set in motion set in motion set in motion, both of you set in motion
3rd P. suvatu or suvatāt1 suvatām suvantu2 suvatām suvetām4 suvantām2
let him/her/it set in motion let them both set in motion let them set in motion let him/her/it set in motion let them both set in motion let them set in motion
Pers. Alternative ways to translate according to a particular context
(note that the auxiliary words I have utilized to express entreaty, necessity, gentle command, etc., that is, "oh", "must", etc., are generally used... but perhaps you will have to use other terms to express the same thing according to the context. For example: "oh God", "have to", etc. respectively. You may also include exclamation point to emphasize. Hopefully, you have understood my point)
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. suvāni suvāva suvāma suvai3 suvāvahai suvā-
mahai
question should I set in motion? should we both set in motion? should we set in motion? should I set in motion? should we both set in motion? should we set in motion?
capacity I am able to/can set in motion we both are able to/can set in motion we are able to/can set in motion I am able to/can set in motion we both are able to/can set in motion we are able to/can set in motion
necessity I must set in motion we both must set in motion we must set in motion I must set in motion we both must set in motion we must set in motion
2nd P. suva or suvatāt1 suvatam suvata suvasva suvethām4 suva-
dhvam
entreaty oh, set in motion! oh, both of you, set in motion! oh, set in motion! oh, set in motion! oh, both of you, set in motion! oh, set in motion!
blessing may you set in motion may you both set in motion may you set in motion may you set in motion may you both set in motion may you set in motion
gentle
advice
you should set in motion you both should set in motion you should set in motion you should set in motion you both should set in motion you should set in motion
3rd P. suvatu or suvatāt1 suvatām suvantu2 suvatām suvetām4 suva-
ntām2
blessing may he/she/it set in motion may they both set in motion may they set in motion may he/she/it set in motion may they both set in motion may they set in motion
gentle
command
may5 he/she/it set in motion may5 they both set in motion may5 they set in motion may5 he/she/it set in motion may5 they both set in motion may5 they set in motion
1 The termination "tāt" is only used if you are using the Imperative Mood in a benedictive sense (see "blessing" row in 2nd and 3rd persons).
2 Final "a" in the compound base "suva" must be dropped before terminations beginning with "a" -See (1) in the above table dealing with "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10"-. Thus, the final result is "suvantu" and "suvantām" and not "suvāntu" and "suvāntām".
3 Final "a" in the compound base "suva" plus the termination "ai" is again "ai" by 5th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
4 Final "a" in "suva" (compound base) + "ithām" and "itām" (Ātmanepada terminations) = "ethām" and "etām" respectively, as "a" plus "i" is "e" by 2nd Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
5 The term "may" is not used here to convey a blessing (e.g. "may my worship bear fruit" in a benedictive sense, that is, "I beg God to grant me the fruit of my worship" and the like), but to indicate a gentle command (e.g. "let my worship bear fruit", but in a gentle way, not as a mere "command"; it is a firm wish and hope that my worship will lastly bear fruit, got it? It might be alternatively translated like this: "let my worship bear fruit... this is my sincere wish" and so on).

कॄ -Kṝ (to scatter)- [only Parasmaipada]

The compound base is "kira" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "kira" (compound base) now. A last thing: I will be using "to let" as an auxiliary verb in order to form the first and third persons of the Imperative Mood. The word "must" may also be included, for example: "I must scatter" instead of "let me scatter". In fact, even though "must" might be used with all the three persons, is specially used with the first person. In turn, the word "may" is generally used in a benedictive way but... see in the chart:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA (usual way to translate)
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. kirāṇi1 kirāva kirāma
let me scatter let us both scatter let us scatter
2nd P. kira or kiratāt2 kiratam kirata
scatter scatter, both of you scatter
3rd P. kiratu or kiratāt2 kiratām kirantu3
let him/her/it scatter let them both scatter let them scatter
Pers. Alternative ways to translate according to a particular context
(note that the auxiliary words I have utilized to express entreaty, necessity, gentle command, etc., that is, "oh", "must", etc., are generally used... but perhaps you will have to use other terms to express the same thing according to the context. For example: "oh God", "have to", etc. respectively. You may also include exclamation point to emphasize. Hopefully, you have understood my point)
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. kirāṇi1 kirāva kirāma
question should I scatter? should we both scatter? should we scatter?
capacity I am able to/can scatter we both are able to/can scatter we are able to/can scatter
necessity I must scatter we both must scatter we must scatter
2nd P. kira or kiratāt2 kiratam kirata
entreaty oh, scatter! oh, both of you, scatter! oh, scatter!
blessing may you scatter may you both scatter may you scatter
gentle
advice
you should scatter you both should scatter you should scatter
3rd P. kiratu or kiratāt2 kiratām kirantu3
blessing may he/she/it scatter may they both scatter may they scatter
gentle
command
may4 he/she/it scatter may4 they both scatter may4 they scatter
1 Original "n" in the termination "āni" changes to "āṇi" by 18th Rule of Consonant Sandhi.
2 The termination "tāt" is only used if you are using the Imperative Mood in a benedictive sense (see "blessing" row in 2nd and 3rd persons).
3 Final "a" in the compound base "kira" must be dropped before terminations beginning with "a" -See (1) in the above table dealing with "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10"-. Thus, the final result is "kirantu" and not "kirāntu".
4 The term "may" is not used here to convey a blessing (e.g. "may my worship bear fruit" in a benedictive sense, that is, "I beg God to grant me the fruit of my worship" and the like), but to indicate a gentle command (e.g. "let my worship bear fruit", but in a gentle way, not as a mere "command"; it is a firm wish and hope that my worship will lastly bear fruit, got it? It might be translated like this: "let my worship bear fruit... this is my sincere wish" and so on).

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 CONJUGATING ROOTS BELONGING TO GAṆA 10 IN THE Imperative Mood

Here you are the special features of the tenth Gaṇa, which you are about to study:

SPECIAL RULES FOR GAṆA 10
(a) If the penultimate letter of the root is a "short" vowel (except "a"), it takes the Guṇa substitute.
(b) If the root has a final vowel or a penultimate "a", not prosodically long, all of them are to be turned into their respective Vṛddhi substitute.
[A vowel is prosodically long when it is followed by two or more consonants; e.g. "a" in "mantra". Note that the penultimate "a" in "mantra" is not originally long, but it becomes so, as it were, because it is followed by three consonants (ntr)]
(c) "ay" is to be ultimately added.

तड् -Taḍ (to beat)- [Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada]

The compound base is "tāḍaya" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "tāḍaya" (compound base) now. A last thing: I will be using "to let" as an auxiliary verb in order to form the first and third persons of the Imperative Mood. The word "must" may also be included, for example: "I must beat" instead of "let me beat". In fact, even though "must" might be used with all the three persons, is specially used with the first person. In turn, the word "may" is generally used in a benedictive way but... see in the chart:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA
(usual way to translate)
ĀTMANEPADA
(usual way to translate)
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. tāḍayāni tāḍayāva tāḍayāma tāḍayai3 tāḍayāvahai tāḍayāmahai
let me beat let us both beat let us beat let me beat let us both beat let us beat
2nd P. tāḍaya or tāḍayatāt1 tāḍayatam tāḍayata tāḍayasva tāḍayethām4 tāḍayadhvam
beat beat, both of you beat beat beat, both of you beat
3rd P. tāḍayatu or tāḍayatāt1 tāḍayatām tāḍayantu2 tāḍayatām tāḍayetām4 tāḍayantām2
let him/her/it beat let them both beat let them beat let him/her/it beat let them both beat let them beat
Pers. Alternative ways to translate according to a particular context
(note that the auxiliary words I have utilized to express entreaty, necessity, gentle command, etc., that is, "oh", "must", etc., are generally used... but perhaps you will have to use other terms to express the same thing according to the context. For example: "oh God", "have to", etc. respectively. You may also include exclamation point to emphasize. Hopefully, you have understood my point)
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. tāḍayāni tāḍayāva tāḍayāma tāḍayai3 tāḍayāvahai tāḍayā-
mahai
question should I beat? should we both beat? should we beat? should I beat? should we both beat? should we beat?
capacity I am able to/can beat we both are able to/can beat we are able to/can beat I am able to/can beat we both are able to/can beat we are able to/can beat
necessity I must beat we both must beat we must beat I must beat we both must beat we must beat
2nd P. tāḍaya or tāḍayatāt1 tāḍayatam tāḍayata tāḍayasva tāḍayethām4 tāḍaya-
dhvam
entreaty oh, beat! oh, both of you, beat! oh, beat! oh, beat! oh, both of you, beat! oh, beat!
blessing may you beat may you both beat may you beat may you beat may you both beat may you beat
gentle
advice
you should beat you both should beat you should beat you should beat you both should beat you should beat
3rd P. tāḍayatu or tāḍayatāt1 tāḍayatām tāḍayantu2 tāḍayatām tāḍayetām4 tāḍaya-
ntām2
blessing may he/she/it beat may they both beat may they beat may he/she/it beat may they both beat may they beat
gentle
command
may5 he/she/it beat may5 they both beat may5 they beat may5 he/she/it beat may5 they both beat may5 they beat
1 The termination "tāt" is only used if you are using the Imperative Mood in a benedictive sense (see "blessing" row in 2nd and 3rd persons).
2 Final "a" in the compound base "tāḍaya" must be dropped before terminations beginning with "a" -See (1) in the above table dealing with "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10"-. Thus, the final result is "tāḍayantu" and "tāḍayantām" and not "tāḍayāntu" and "tāḍayāntām".
3 Final "a" in the compound base "tāḍaya" plus the termination "ai" is again "ai" by 5th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
4 Final "a" in "tāḍaya" (compound base) + "ithām" and "itām" (Ātmanepada terminations) = "ethām" and "etām" respectively, as "a" plus "i" is "e" by 2nd Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
5 The term "may" is not used here to convey a blessing (e.g. "may my worship bear fruit" in a benedictive sense, that is, "I beg God to grant me the fruit of my worship" and the like), but to indicate a gentle command (e.g. "let my worship bear fruit", but in a gentle way, not as a mere "command"; it is a firm wish and hope that my worship will lastly bear fruit, got it? It might be alternatively translated like this: "let my worship bear fruit... this is my sincere wish" and so on).

दण्ड् -Daṇḍ (to punish)- [Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada]

The compound base is "daṇḍaya" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "daṇḍaya" (compound base) now. A last thing: I will be using "to let" as an auxiliary verb in order to form the first and third persons of the Imperative Mood. The word "must" may also be included, for example: "I must punish" instead of "let me punish". In fact, even though "must" might be used with all the three persons, is specially used with the first person. In turn, the word "may" is generally used in a benedictive way but... see in the chart:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA
(usual way to translate)
ĀTMANEPADA
(usual way to translate)
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. daṇḍayāni daṇḍayāva daṇḍayāma daṇḍayai3 daṇḍayāvahai daṇḍayāmahai
let me punish let us both punish let us punish let me punish let us both punish let us punish
2nd P. daṇḍaya or daṇḍayatāt1 daṇḍayatam daṇḍayata daṇḍayasva daṇḍayethām4 daṇḍayadhvam
punish punish, both of you punish punish punish, both of you punish
3rd P. daṇḍayatu or daṇḍayatāt1 daṇḍayatām daṇḍayantu2 daṇḍayatām daṇḍayetām4 daṇḍayantām2
let him/her/it punish let them both punish let them punish let him/her/it punish let them both punish let them punish
Pers. Alternative ways to translate according to a particular context
(note that the auxiliary words I have utilized to express entreaty, necessity, gentle command, etc., that is, "oh", "must", etc., are generally used... but perhaps you will have to use other terms to express the same thing according to the context. For example: "oh God", "have to", etc. respectively. You may also include exclamation point to emphasize. Hopefully, you have understood my point)
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. daṇḍayāni daṇḍayāva daṇḍayāma daṇḍayai3 daṇḍayā-
vahai
daṇḍayā-
mahai
question should I punish? should we both punish? should we punish? should I punish? should we both punish? should we punish?
capacity I am able to/can punish we both are able to/can punish we are able to/can punish I am able to/can punish we both are able to/can punish we are able to/can punish
necessity I must punish we both must punish we must punish I must punish we both must punish we must punish
2nd P. daṇḍaya or daṇḍayatāt1 daṇḍayatam daṇḍayata daṇḍayasva daṇḍaye-
thām4
daṇḍaya-
dhvam
entreaty oh, punish! oh, both of you, punish! oh, punish! oh, punish! oh, both of you, punish! oh, punish!
blessing may you punish may you both punish may you punish may you punish may you both punish may you punish
gentle
advice
you should punish you both should punish you should punish you should punish you both should punish you should punish
3rd P. daṇḍayatu or daṇḍayatāt1 daṇḍayatām daṇḍayantu2 daṇḍayatām daṇḍaye-
tām4
daṇḍaya-
ntām2
blessing may he/she/it punish may they both punish may they punish may he/she/it punish may they both punish may they punish
gentle
command
may5 he/she/it punish may5 they both punish may5 they punish may5 he/she/it punish may5 they both punish may5 they punish
1 The termination "tāt" is only used if you are using the Imperative Mood in a benedictive sense (see "blessing" row in 2nd and 3rd persons).
2 Final "a" in the compound base "daṇḍaya" must be dropped before terminations beginning with "a" -See (1) in the above table dealing with "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10"-. Thus, the final result is "daṇḍayantu" and "daṇḍayantām" and not "daṇḍayāntu" and "daṇḍayāntām".
3 Final "a" in the compound base "daṇḍaya" plus the termination "ai" is again "ai" by 5th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
4 Final "a" in "daṇḍaya" (compound base) + "ithām" and "itām" (Ātmanepada terminations) = "ethām" and "etām" respectively, as "a" plus "i" is "e" by 2nd Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
5 The term "may" is not used here to convey a blessing (e.g. "may my worship bear fruit" in a benedictive sense, that is, "I beg God to grant me the fruit of my worship" and the like), but to indicate a gentle command (e.g. "let my worship bear fruit", but in a gentle way, not as a mere "command"; it is a firm wish and hope that my worship will lastly bear fruit, got it? It might be alternatively translated like this: "let my worship bear fruit... this is my sincere wish" and so on).

रुद् -Rud (to weep)- [Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada; a root originally belonging to the second Gaṇa, but here it will be conjugated as belonging to the tenth Gaṇa in order to form the respective Causal]

The compound base is "rodaya" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "rodaya" (compound base) now. A last thing: I will be using "to let" as an auxiliary verb in order to form the first and third persons of the Imperative Mood. The word "must" may also be included, for example: "I must weep" instead of "let me weep". In fact, even though "must" might be used with all the three persons, is specially used with the first person. In turn, the word "may" is generally used in a benedictive way but... see in the chart:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA
(usual way to translate)
ĀTMANEPADA
(usual way to translate)
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. rodayāni rodayāva rodayāma rodayai3 rodayāvahai rodayāmahai
let me weep let us both weep let us weep let me weep let us both weep let us weep
2nd P. rodaya or rodayatāt1 rodayatam rodayata rodayasva rodayethām4 rodayadhvam
weep weep, both of you weep weep weep, both of you weep
3rd P. rodayatu or rodayatāt1 rodayatām rodayantu2 rodayatām rodayetām4 rodayantām2
let him/her/it weep let them both weep let them weep let him/her/it weep let them both weep let them weep
Pers. Alternative ways to translate according to a particular context
(note that the auxiliary words I have utilized to express entreaty, necessity, gentle command, etc., that is, "oh", "must", etc., are generally used... but perhaps you will have to use other terms to express the same thing according to the context. For example: "oh God", "have to", etc. respectively. You may also include exclamation point to emphasize. Hopefully, you have understood my point)
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. rodayāni rodayāva rodayāma rodayai3 rodayāvahai rodayā-
mahai
question should I weep? should we both weep? should we weep? should I weep? should we both weep? should we weep?
capacity I am able to/can weep we both are able to/can weep we are able to/can weep I am able to/can weep we both are able to/can weep we are able to/can weep
necessity I must weep we both must weep we must weep I must weep we both must weep we must weep
2nd P. rodaya or rodayatāt1 rodayatam rodayata rodayasva rodayethām4 rodaya-
dhvam
entreaty oh, weep! oh, both of you, weep! oh, weep! oh, weep! oh, both of you, weep! oh, weep!
blessing may you weep may you both weep may you weep may you weep may you both weep may you weep
gentle
advice
you should weep you both should weep you should weep you should weep you both should weep you should weep
3rd P. rodayatu or rodayatāt1 rodayatām rodayantu2 rodayatām rodayetām4 rodaya-
ntām2
blessing may he/she/it weep may they both weep may they weep may he/she/it weep may they both weep may they weep
gentle
command
may5he/she/it weep may5 they both weep may5 they weep may5 he/she/it weep may5 they both weep may5 they weep
1 The termination "tāt" is only used if you are using the Imperative Mood in a benedictive sense (see "blessing" row in 2nd and 3rd persons).
2 Final "a" in the compound base "rodaya" must be dropped before terminations beginning with "a" -See (1) in the above table dealing with "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10"-. Thus, the final result is "rodayantu" and "rodayantām" and not "rodayāntu" and "rodayāntām".
3 Final "a" in the compound base "rodaya" plus the termination "ai" is again "ai" by 5th Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
4 Final "a" in "rodaya" (compound base) + "ithām" and "itām" (Ātmanepada terminations) = "ethām" and "etām" respectively, as "a" plus "i" is "e" by 2nd Primary Rule of Vowel Sandhi.
5 The term "may" is not used here to convey a blessing (e.g. "may my worship bear fruit" in a benedictive sense, that is, "I beg God to grant me the fruit of my worship" and the like), but to indicate a gentle command (e.g. "let my worship bear fruit", but in a gentle way, not as a mere "command"; it is a firm wish and hope that my worship will lastly bear fruit, got it? It might be alternatively translated like this: "let my worship bear fruit... this is my sincere wish" and so on).

Well, the process of conjugation is always the same in Imperative Mode for all roots belonging to the Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10. Of course, there are roots that does not follow the rules. These roots are exceptions, which you will study later on. So, do not worry about them. Potential Mode now:

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 How to conjugate Verbs with unchangeable bases in Potential Mood

Good news. You do not have to learn any new rules to conjugate in Potential Mode. Just use the General Rules along with the Special Rules for each of the Gaṇa-s, and then add the respective terminations.

Bad news. The Potential Mood may be translated in multiple ways according to the context, time, etc. of a particular text... also according to the fashion of that time... brand of the T-shirt worn by the author when he took the ball-point pen to write the text... his mental state the day in which he wrote the text... if he was suffering from a toothache, the meaning is different... etc. OK, I was kidding... only "context, time, etc." are valid, the rest is my own invention. Besides, I cannot imagine Gaṇeśa (one of the two sons of Śiva) holding a ball-point pen and writing the Mahābhārata while Vyāsa dictated... in fact, he used his own tusk to do that, do you remember?, hehe. But, man, Sanskrit is sometimes such a big boulder in the way. The amount of alternative ways and intricacies is too much. Listen and then rest in peace, haha, you will not believe it:

Gentle command: A kind of substitute for the Imperative Mood sometimes, but much more gentle [e.g. "sadā mantraṁ japet" -he/she always should mutter (japet) a mantra-]
Command: A kind of substitute for the Imperative Mood, not gentle now but direct [e.g. "udakaṁ pibeḥ" -Drink (pibeḥ) water-]
Gently asking questions: You may use the Potential Mood to ask questions [e.g. "bho vanaṁ gaccheyam "-Oh (sir), may I go (gaccheyam) to the forest?-]
Hypothesis: Specially together with "yadi" (if) [e.g. "yadi syātpāvakaḥ śītaḥ" -If fire would be (syāt) cold-].
Possibility: The Potential Mood may indicate something that is likely to happen [e.g. "kadācid budhyeya" -I might be awakened, maybe (budhyeya), at some time or other-].
Within final consecutive statements: It acts now as a kind of substitute for the Imperative [e.g. "tathā mantraṁ japedyathā muktiṁ labheta" -Let him/her mutter (japet) a mantra so that he/she may attain (labheta) Liberation-].
A substitute for the Present Tense (accompanied by "maybe" or "perhaps" sometimes): In some scriptures, the Potential Mood is tantamount to the Present Tense [e.g. "mantraṁ japet" -generally translated "He/she should mutter (japet) a mantra", may even be translated in some texts as "He/she mutters (japet) a mantra" or also "He/she mutters (japet) a mantra, maybe"-].
Giving permission: You may use the Potential Mood for expressing permissions [e.g. "ihāsīthāstvam" -You may sit (āsīthāḥ) here-.
Telling someone to attend to an honorary office or duty: It is important that the office or duty is honorary in order to use the Potential Mood [e.g. "māmadhyāpayestvam" -You may teach (adhyāpayeḥ) me (as an honorary duty)-.

There are other ways to use the Potential Mood, but the information contained in the previous chart is more than enough for our tired intellects, I think. Of course, I will not add alternative ways of translating verbs being conjugated in Potential Mood as I did in Imperative Mood, since the amount of possibilities is really a big one. I will only translate the conjugations in the sense of "gentle command", as the Potential Mood is commonly used. Do not worry then. However, keep always in mind the other possibilities of translation when you face a text containing verbs conjugated in this type of Mood.

As I said to you before:

The same usual rules (general and special) as in the Present Tense, Imperfect Tense and Imperative Mood are to be followed to form the base here. So, the following table can be used again:

GENERAL RULES FOR GAṆA-S 1, 4, 6 AND 10
The vowel "a" must be added to the base to form a kind of "compound" base. However, this very "a" is (1) dropped before terminations beginning with "a", and (2) is lengthened before terminations beginning with a Semivowel, a Nasal, "jh" or "bh".Besides, (3) the penultimate "i", "u", "ṛ" or "ḷ" of a root must be lengthened when followed by "r" or "v" plus any consonant. Careful! Moreover, (4) when the vowel "ṝ" (long) occupies the penultimate or final position in a root and it does not take Guṇa or Vṛddhi or any other change (See 6th Gaṇa), is to be changed to "ir" or "ur" (only if a Labial or "v" precedes). In turn, "i" in "ir" and "u" in "ur" must be lengthened when "ir" or "ur" is followed by a consonant. Note that "y", which you add to a root of the 4th Gaṇa to form the base, might turned out to be that "additional" consonant which is mentioned in (3) and (4).

Obviously, Potential Mood has its own set of endings or terminations:

  TERMINATIONS OF THE POTENTIAL MOOD FOR GAṆA-S 1, 4, 6 AND 10
PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st Person īyam īva īma īya īvahi īmahi
2nd Person īḥ ītam īta īthāḥ īyāthām īdhvam
3rd Person īt ītām īyuḥ īta īyātām īran

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 CONJUGATING ROOTS BELONGING TO GAṆA 1 IN THE Potential Mood

I will be using the same roots as in the Present Tense, Imperfect Tense and Imperative Mood in order not to form the base again. Let us begin. Here you are the special features of the first Gaṇa:

SPECIAL RULES FOR GAṆA 1
(a) If the root ends in a vowel, you have to turn this one into its Guṇa substitute.
(b) If the penultimate letter of the root is a "short" vowel, you have to transform this vowel into its Guṇa substitute.

पुर्व् -Purv (to fill)- [only Parasmaipada]

The compound base is "pūrva" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "pūrva" (compound base) now:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. pūrveyam pūrveva pūrvema
I should fill we both should fill we should fill
2nd P. pūrveḥ pūrvetam pūrveta
you should fill you both should fill you should fill
3rd P. pūrvet pūrvetām pūrveyuḥ
he/she/it should fill they both should fill they should fill

लष्   -Laṣ (to desire)- [Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada]

The compound base is "laṣa" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "laṣa" (compound base) now:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. laṣeyam laṣeva laṣema laṣeya laṣevahi laṣemahi
I should desire we both should desire we should desire I should desire we both should desire we should desire
2nd P. laṣeḥ laṣetam laṣeta laṣethāḥ laṣeyāthām laṣedhvam
you should desire you both should desire you should desire you should desire you both should desire you should desire
3rd P. laṣet laṣetām laṣeyuḥ laṣeta laṣeyātām laṣeran
he/she/it should desire they both should desire they should desire he/she/it should desire they both should desire they should desire

ईक्ष्  -īkṣ (to see)- [only Ātmanepada]

The compound base is "īkṣa" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "īkṣa" (compound base) now:

Pers. ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. īkṣeya īkṣevahi īkṣemahi
I should see we both should see we should see
2nd P. īkṣethāḥ īkṣeyāthām īkṣedhvam
you should see you both should see you should see
3rd P. īkṣeta īkṣeyātām īkṣeran
he/she/it should see they both should see they should see

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 CONJUGATING ROOTS BELONGING TO GAṆA 4 IN THE Potential Mood

Here you are the special features of the fourth Gaṇa, which you are about to study:

SPECIAL RULES FOR GAṆA 4
(a) Any vowel present in the root remains unchanged [except penultimate "i", "u", "ṛ" and "ḷ" when followed by "r" or "v" plus a consonant; and a penultimate or final "ṝ". See (3) and (4) in the "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10" table].
(b) The Semivowel "y" is added to the root.

तुष्   -Tuṣ (to be pleased)- [generally Parasmaipada... although metrically Ātmanepada is also included]

The compound base is "tuṣya" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "tuṣya" (compound base) now:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. tuṣyeyam tuṣyeva tuṣyema
I should be pleased we both should be pleased we should be pleased
2nd P. tuṣyeḥ tuṣyetam tuṣyeta
you should be pleased you both should be pleased you should be pleased
3rd P. tuṣyet tuṣyetām tuṣyeyuḥ
he/she/it should be pleased they both should be pleased they should be pleased

दिव्   -Div (to shine)- [generally Parasmaipada... but Ātmanepada in Ṛgveda (The two pada-s are included for the sake of convenience in this study)]

The compound base is "dīvya" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "dīvya" (compound base) now:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. dīvyeyam dīvyeva dīvyema dīvyeya dīvyevahi dīvyemahi
I should shine we both should shine we should shine I should shine we both should shine we should shine
2nd P. dīvyeḥ dīvyetam dīvyeta dīvyethāḥ dīvyeyāthām dīvyedhvam
you should shine you both should shine you should shine you should shine you both should shine you should shine
3rd P. dīvyet dīvyetām dīvyeyuḥ dīvyeta dīvyeyātām dīvyeran
he/she/it should shine they both should shine they should shine he/she/it should shine they both should shine they should shine

दो   -Do (to cut)- [only Parasmaipada]

The compound base is "dya" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "dya" (compound base) now:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. dyeyam dyeva dyema
I should cut we both should cut we should cut
2nd P. dyeḥ dyetam dyeta
you should cut you both should cut you should cut
3rd P. dyet dyetām dyeyuḥ
he/she/it should cut they both should cut they should cut

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 CONJUGATING ROOTS BELONGING TO GAṆA 6 IN THE Potential Mood

Here you are the special features of the sixth Gaṇa, which you are about to study:

SPECIAL RULES FOR GAṆA 6
(a) If the penultimate letter of a the root is a vowel (short or long), it remains unchanged [except penultimate "i", "u", "ṛ" and "ḷ" when followed by "r" or "v" plus a consonant; and a penultimate "ṝ". See (3) and (4) in the "General rules for Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10" table].
(b) If the final letter of the root is "i", "ī", "u", "ū", "ṛ" or "ṝ", it changes to "iy", "uv", "riy" and "ir" respectively. In other words, "i" and "ī" change to "iy"; "u" and "ū" change to "uv", while "ṛ" changes to "riy" and "ṝ" changes to "ir".

उञ्छ्  -Uñch (to gather)- [only Parasmaipada]

The compound base is "uñcha" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "uñcha" (compound base) now:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. uñcheyam uñcheva uñchema
I should gather we both should gather we should gather
2nd P. uñcheḥ uñchetam uñcheta
you should gather you both should gather you should gather
3rd P. uñchet uñchetām uñcheyuḥ
he/she/it should gather they both should gather they should gather

सू  -Sū (to set in motion)- [generally Parasmaipada... but also Ātmanepada in the Brāhmaṇa portion of the Veda (The two pada-s are included for the sake of convenience in this study)]

The compound base is "suva" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "suva" (compound base) now:

कॄ -Kṝ (to scatter)- [only Parasmaipada]

The compound base is "kira" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "kira" (compound base) now:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. suveyam suveva suvema suveya suvevahi suvemahi
I should set in motion we both should set in motion we should set in motion I should set in motion we both should set in motion we should set in motion
2nd P. suveḥ suvetam suveta suvethāḥ suveyāthām suvedhvam
you should set in motion you both set in motion you should set in motion you should set in motion you both should set in motion you should set in motion
3rd P. suvet suvetām suveyuḥ suveta suveyātām suveran
he/she/it should set in motion they both should set in motion they should set in motion he/she/it should set in motion they both should set in motion they should set in motion
Pers. PARASMAIPADA
Singular Dual Plural
1st P. kireyam kireva kirema
I should scatter we both should scatter we should scatter
2nd P. kireḥ kiretam kireta
you should scatter you both should scatter you should scatter
3rd P. kiret kiretām kireyuḥ
he/she/it should scatter they both should scatter they should scatter

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 CONJUGATING ROOTS BELONGING TO GAṆA 10 IN THE Potential Mood

Here you are the special features of the tenth Gaṇa, which you are about to study:

SPECIAL RULES FOR GAṆA 10
(a) If the penultimate letter of the root is a "short" vowel (except "a"), it takes the Guṇa substitute.
(b) If the root has a final vowel or a penultimate "a", not prosodically long, all of them are to be turned into their respective Vṛddhi substitute.
[A vowel is prosodically long when it is followed by two or more consonants; e.g. "a" in "mantra". Note that the penultimate "a" in "mantra" is not originally long, but it becomes so, as it were, because it is followed by three consonants (ntr)]
(c) "ay" is to be ultimately added.

तड् -Taḍ (to beat)- [Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada]

The compound base is "tāḍaya" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "tāḍaya" (compound base) now:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. tāḍayeyam tāḍayeva tāḍayema tāḍayeya tāḍayevahi tāḍayemahi
I should beat we both should beat we should beat I should beat we both should beat we should beat
2nd P. tāḍayeḥ tāḍayetam tāḍayeta tāḍayethāḥ tāḍayeyāthām tāḍayedhvam
you should beat you both should beat you should beat you should beat you both should beat you should beat
3rd P. tāḍayet tāḍayetām tāḍayeyuḥ tāḍayeta tāḍayeyātām tāḍayeran
he/she/it should beat they both should beat they should beat he/she/it should beat they both should beat they should beat

दण्ड् -Daṇḍ (to punish)- [Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada]

The compound base is "daṇḍaya" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "daṇḍaya" (compound base) now:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. daṇḍayeyam daṇḍayeva daṇḍayema daṇḍayeya daṇḍayevahi daṇḍayemahi
I should punish we both should punish we should punish I should punish we both should punish we should punish
2nd P. daṇḍayeḥ daṇḍayetam daṇḍayeta daṇḍayethāḥ daṇḍayeyāthām daṇḍayedhvam
you should punish you both should punish you should punish you should punish you both should punish you should punish
3rd P. daṇḍayet daṇḍayetām daṇḍayeyuḥ daṇḍayeta daṇḍayeyātām daṇḍayeran
he/she/it should punish they both should punish they should punish he/she/it should punish they both should punish they should punish

रुद् -Rud (to weep)- [Parasmaipada and Ātmanepada; a root originally belonging to the second Gaṇa, but here it will be conjugated as belonging to the tenth Gaṇa in order to form the respective Causal]

The compound base is "rodaya" (base + a). So, to finish the conjugation, the terminations are to be added to "rodaya" (compound base) now:

Pers. PARASMAIPADA ĀTMANEPADA
Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural
1st P. rodayeyam rodayeva rodayema rodayeya rodayevahi rodayemahi
I should weep we both should weep we should weep I should weep we both should weep we should weep
2nd P. rodayeḥ rodayetam rodayeta rodayethāḥ rodayeyāthām rodayedhvam
you should weep you both should weep you should weep you should weep you both should weep you should weep
3rd P. rodayet rodayetām rodayeyuḥ rodayeta rodayeyātām rodayeran
he/she/it should weep they both should weep they should weep he/she/it should weep they both should weep they should weep

Well, the process of conjugation is always the same in the Potential Mood for all roots belonging to the Gaṇa-s 1, 4, 6 and 10. Of course, there are roots that might not follow the rules. These roots are exceptions, which you will study later on. So, do not worry about them. The final notes now:

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 Concluding Remarks

Thus, the first part of our study is now finished. A mere warming up, believe me. The next document will deal with the roots belonging to Houses 1, 4, 6 and 10 that form their bases irregularly. That document will prove a real challenge, no doubt. Get ready!

I have to ask you again not to study by heart. The Sanskrit knowledge is obtained through the repetitive practice, not through mere memory. For example, if you start translating some Sanskrit text later, you may face a sentence such as the following:

कथं विद्यां कृष्णम् - Kathaṁ vidyāṁ kṛṣṇam.

You say: OK, "katham" means "how?", and "kṛṣṇam" means "to Kṛṣṇa" (Accusative case, singular). But, what the hell does "vidyām" mean? Evidently, it derives from the root "vid" -to know, etc.- (belonging to Gaṇa 2). Well, the termination is obviously "yām". Therefore, you go to the page containing all Terminations and look for "yām" termination somewhere. You know that "vid" belongs to the second House or Gaṇa, and on account of that no terminations pertaining to the sets related to Houses 1, 4, 6 and 10 will be the one you seek. At last, you find out that the termination is the one being used to conjugate "vid" in Potential Mood (1st Person singular, Parasmaipada, see it here in the set "only" for Gaṇa-s 2, 3, 5, 7, 8 and 9). The termination is "yām", no doubt. You add it to the root "vid": vidyām. If this root would have belonged to either House 1, 4, 6 or 10, the termination to use would be "īyam". In this manner, the final result would have been "vidīyam"... but this is not the case, is it? Good!

Now, you have to resolve the problem of how to translate that conjugation in Potential Mood. For this purpose, you go read the above table in which I describe the various ways to understand a verb conjugated in Potential Mood according to the context, time, etc. Well, you read and read until you finally find that "Possibility" is the best interpretation for translating "vidyām"... "I might know"... or better "might I know", as the word is included within a question. You got it! It is "might I know". Well, you place this phrase in the sentence and the translation would read:

How (katham) might I know (vidyām) Kṛṣṇa (kṛṣṇam)? (you are a genious)

But, who is that Kṛṣṇa? Kṛṣṇa is your own Self. He lives in you, as You, dear pupil. See you soon.

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 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.