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 Learning Sanskrit - Pronunciation 8

Aphorisms (Section III of Pātañjalayogasūtra-s)


 Introduction

Hi, this is Gabriel Pradīpaka once again. Here you are 55 aphorisms, which form the third out of four sections of the Patañjali's Yogasūtra-s (the primordial scripture in Yoga). You will be able to listen to Sanskrit language directly. Try to repeat the aphorism along with me. Besides, you will find a complete translation of the aphorism. So, this important document will help you to write and pronounce Sanskrit properly. Additionally, if you wish, you will start learning a celebrated scripture belonging to Yoga system. But remember that the meaning of these abstruse aphorisms is not given here. Only their translation is shown. If you are not interested in Yoga or even in Indian philosophy, just use the aphorisms to practice Sanskrit.

There is a measure unit called 'mātrā' or "time gap needed to pronounce a short vowel (like 'a')". Short vowels (a, i, u, ṛ, ḷ) last 1 mātrā, while long vowels (ā, ī, ū, ṝ) and diphthongs (e, ai, o, au) last 2 mātrā-s. In turn, Anusvāra ('ṁ') and Visarga ('ḥ') last 1/2 mātrā.

Have three documents at hand (print them if you can): Transliterating (2) (English), Sanskrit Alphabet and Conjuncts. You will need them very often.

To download the sounds, click on the respective icon placed below each of the aphorisms and then select the adequate choice. If you have the Quick Time plugin installed, it is possible that you cannot download the sound directly. To work this problem around, right-click on the icon and select "Save link as..." or something like that (the statements vary according to the different browsers). That is it! Obviously, you can alternately uninstall the Quick Time plugin, but maybe you might need it for some other things. So, it is your choice, not mine.

The sound files are "properly" named, of course, so that you can create, say, four folders (one for every section of this scripture), and quickly find the right sound you need to hear.

Important: All that is in brackets and italicized within the translation has been added by me in order to complete the sense of a particular phrase or sentence. In turn, all that is between double hyphen (--...--) constitutes clarifying further information also added by me.

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 Third Section : supernatural powers

देशबन्धश्चित्तस्य धारणा॥१॥
Deśabandhaścittasya dhāraṇā||1||

Concentration (dhāraṇā) is the mind's (cittasya) fixation (bandhaḥ) on one point (deśa)||1||


तत्र प्रत्ययैकतानता ध्यानम्॥२॥
Tatra pratyayaikatānatā dhyānam||2||

In that --in Dhāraṇā-- (tatra), the continuous flow of similar (ekatānatā) mental modifications (pratyaya) is Meditation (dhyānam)||2||


तदेवार्थमात्रनिर्भासं स्वरूपशून्यमिव समाधिः॥३॥
Tadevārthamātranirbhāsaṁ svarūpaśūnyamiva samādhiḥ||3||

Perfect Concentration (samādhiḥ) is just (eva) that (condition) (tad) in which only (mātra) the object (of concentration) (artha) shines forth (nirbhāsam), and the self (sva-rūpa) is absent (śūnyam), as it were (iva)||3||

 


त्रयमेकत्र संयमः॥४॥
Trayamekatra saṁyamaḥ||4||

The (abovementioned) triad --i.e. Dhāraṇā, Dhyāna and Samādhi-- (trayam) on a single object (ekatra) is Saṁyama (saṁyamaḥ)||4||


तज्जयात्प्रज्ञालोकः॥५॥
Tajjayātprajñālokaḥ||5||

Through the conquest (jayāt) of that --i.e. Saṁyama-- (tad), the Light (ālokaḥ) of Wisdom (prajñā) (dawns)||5||


तस्य भूमिषु विनियोगः॥६॥
Tasya bhūmiṣu viniyogaḥ||6||

(There must be) application (viniyogaḥ) of that (tasya) to the stages (of the practice) (bhūmiṣu)||6||


त्रयमन्तरङ्गं पूर्वेभ्यः॥७॥
Trayamantaraṅgaṁ pūrvebhyaḥ||7||

The triad (of Dhāraṇā, Dhyāna and Samādhi) (trayam) (are more) internal (practices) (antaraṅgam) than the previous ones --i.e. Yama, Niyama, Āsana, Prāṇāyāma and Pratyāhāra-- (pūrvebhyaḥ) (within the framework of Samprajñātayoga)||7||


तदपि वहिरङ्गं निर्वीजस्य॥८॥
Tadapi vahiraṅgaṁ nirvījasya||8||

(In turn,) that very triad (tad api) is external (vahiraṅgam) in respect of Nirvīja or seedless concentration --i.e. Asamprajñātayoga-- (nirvījasya)||8||


व्युत्थाननिरोधसंस्कारयोरभिभवप्रादुर्भावौ निरोधक्षणचित्तान्वयो निरोधपरिणामः॥९॥
Vyutthānanirodhasaṁskārayorabhibhavaprādurbhāvau nirodhakṣaṇacittānvayo nirodhapariṇāmaḥ||9||

The subjugation (abhibhava) of the latent impression(s) --saṁskāra-- (saṁskārayoḥ) of the manifest state --i.e. "Vyutthāna" or the ordinary state of consciousness in which there is mental fluctuation-- (vyutthāna) and the appearance --prādurbhāva-- (prādurbhāvau) of the latenci(es) --saṁskāra-- (saṁskārayoḥ) of the arrested state of mind (nirodha) (is) the mutation (pariṇāmaḥ) of (that very) arrested state of mind (nirodha). (This mutation) is linked (anvayaḥ) to the mind (citta) at (every) moment (kṣaṇa) of that arrested state of mind (nirodha)||9||

Note that "saṁskārayoḥ" literally means "of both of latent impressions" (i.e. "of those of Vyutthāna --manifest state-- and Nirodha --arrested state of mind--). In turn, "abhibhavaprādurbhāvau" literally means "the subjugation (abhibhava) and appearance (prādurbhāva)". I had to adapt the translation so that the purport of the aphorism may be understood properly.


तस्य प्रशान्तवाहिता संस्कारात्॥१०॥
Tasya praśāntavāhitā saṁskārāt||10||

Through the latent impression(s) (saṁskārāt) of that (arrested state of mind) (tasya), a continuous undisturbed state of mental tranquility (praśānta-vāhitā) (is brought about and kept)||10||


सर्वार्थतैकाग्रतयोः क्षयोदयौ चित्तस्य समाधिपरिणामः॥११॥
Sarvārthataikāgratayoḥ kṣayodayau cittasya samādhipariṇāmaḥ||11||

Diminution (kṣaya) of attention to all (objects) (sarva-arthatā) and the emergence/development --udaya-- (udayau) of one-pointedness --ekāgratā-- (ekāgratayoḥ) (is) the mutation (pariṇāmaḥ) of Samādhi --perfect concentration or absorption-- (samādhi) of mind (cittasya)||11||

Note that "sarvārthataikāgratayoḥ" literally means "of both attention to all objects (sarva-arthatā) and one-pointedness (ekāgratā)". In turn, "kṣayodayau" literally means "on the diminution (kṣaya) and emergence/development (udaya)". I had to adapt the translation so that the purport of the aphorism may be understood properly.


 ततः पुनः शान्तोदितौ तुल्यप्रत्ययौ चित्तस्यैकाग्रतापरिणामः॥१२॥
Tataḥ punaḥ śāntoditau tulyapratyayau cittasyaikāgratāpariṇāmaḥ||12||

There (tatas) again (punar) --i.e. "during Samādhi"--, the past (śānta) modification --pratyaya-- (pratyayau) being the same (tulya) as the present --údita-- (uditau) one --i.e. pratyaya-- (pratyayau), (occurs) the mutation (pariṇāmaḥ) of the one-pointed state (ekāgratā) of the mind (cittasya)||12||

Note that "śāntoditau" literally means "a past --pratyaya or mental modification-- (śānta) and a present one (udita)". In turn, "tulyapratyayau" literally means "two mental modifications or pratyaya-s (pratyayau) being the same (tulya)". I had to adapt the translation so that the purport of the aphorism may be understood properly.


एतेन भूतेन्द्रियेषु धर्मलक्षणावस्थापरिणामा व्याख्याताः॥१३॥
Etena bhūtendriyeṣu dharmalakṣaṇāvasthāpariṇāmā vyākhyātāḥ||13||

By means of this --i.e. "through the previous exposition about the three mutations mentioned in the 9th, 11th and 12th aphorisms"-- (etena), the mutations (pariṇāmāḥ) of essential attribute (dharma), temporal character (lakṣana) (and) state as old and new (avasthā) in the gross elements (bhūta) and Indriya-s --i.e. Powers of perception and action-- (indriyeṣu) (are) explained in detail (vyākhyātāḥ)||13||


शान्तोदिताव्यपदेश्यधर्मानुपाती धर्मी॥१४॥
Śāntoditāvyapadeśyadharmānupātī dharmī||14||

The characterized object (dharmī) is (that which) continues to exist (anupātī) through (the following three) characteristics (dharma): appeased --i.e. past-- (śānta), risen --i.e. present-- (udita) and indefinable --i.e. future-- (avyapadeśya)||14||


क्रमान्यत्वं परिणामान्यत्वे हेतुः॥१५॥
Kramānyatvaṁ pariṇāmānyatve hetuḥ||15||

Difference (anyatvam) in the sequence or succession (krama) (is) the cause (hetuḥ) in respect of the mutative (pariṇāma) difference (anyatve)||15||


परिणामत्रयसंयमादतीतानागतज्ञानम्॥१६॥
Pariṇāmatrayasaṁyamādatītānāgatajñānam||16||

Knowledge (jñānam) of past (atīta) (and) future (anāgata) (is achieved) through Saṁyama (saṁyamāt) on the three (traya) mutations (pariṇāma) --i.e. the mutations of essential attribute, temporal character and state as old and new--||16||


शब्दार्थप्रत्ययानामितरेतराध्यासात्सङ्करस्तत्प्रविभागसंयमात्सर्वभूतरुतज्ञानम्॥१७॥
Śabdārthapratyayānāmitaretarādhyāsātsaṅkarastatpravibhāgasaṁyamātsarvabhūtarutajñānam||17||

Through the reciprocal (itaretara) imposition (adhyāsāt) of word (śabda), meaning (artha) (and) idea --pratyaya-- (pratyayānām), an intermixture appearing in the form of a unified impression (saṅkaraḥ) (is brought about). By means of Saṁyama (saṁyamāt) on that (intermixture) (tad), but in a separate way (pravibhāga), knowledge (jñānam) of (the meaning hidden in) the sounds (ruta) (emitted by) all (sarva) beings (bhūta) (is acquired)||17||


संस्कारसाक्षात्करणात्पूर्वजातिज्ञानम्॥१८॥
Saṁskārasākṣātkaraṇātpūrvajātijñānam||18||

Knowledge (jñānam) of previous (pūrva) births (jāti) (is attained) through the realization (sākṣātkaraṇāt) of latent impressions (saṁskāra)||18||


प्रत्ययस्य परचित्तज्ञानम्॥१९॥
Pratyayasya paracittajñānam||19||

Knowledge (jñānam) of the others' (para) minds (citta) (is achieved by practicing Saṁyama) on the notions (pratyayasya)||19||


न च तत्सालम्बनं तस्याविषयीभूतत्वात्॥२०॥
Na ca tatsālambanaṁ tasyāviṣayībhūtatvāt||20||

(However,) the basis or support (sālambanam) of that --i.e. "of the aforesaid notions"-- (tad) certainly (ca) does not (na) (come to get known by the Yogī practicing Saṁyama on the notions) because it is (bhūtatvāt) out of reach (aviṣayī) of him (tasya) --i.e. it is not a perceivable object for that Yogī--||20||


कायरूपसंयमात्तद्ग्राह्यशक्तिस्तम्भे चक्षुःप्रकाशासम्प्रयोगेऽन्तर्धानम्॥२१॥
Kāyarūpasaṁyamāttadgrāhyaśaktistambhe cakṣuḥprakāśāsamprayoge'ntardhānam||21||

On the suppression (stambhe) of the property (śakti) of perceptibility (grāhya) pertaining to that --i.e. to the body-- (tad) through Saṁyama (saṁyamāt) on the (visible) form (rūpa) of (that very) body (kāya), when the Yogī has (thus) gone beyond (asamprayoge) the range of the eyes (cakṣuḥ-prakāśa), (there is) invisibility (antardhānam)||21||


सोपक्रमं निरुपक्रमं च कर्म तत्संयमादपरान्तज्ञानमरिष्टेभ्यो वा॥२२॥
Sopakramaṁ nirupakramaṁ ca karma tatsaṁyamādaparāntajñānamariṣṭebhyo vā||22||

Karma --i.e. action and its inherent latent impressions-- (karma) (is of two kinds:) Sopakrama --i.e. fast in fructifying-- (sopakramam) and (ca) Nirupakrama --i.e. slow in fructifying-- (nirupakramam). By means of Saṁyama (saṁyamāt) on that (karma) (tad) or (vā) through the signs of approaching death (ariṣṭebhyaḥ), knowledge (jñānam) of the latter end --i.e. "death"-- (aparānta) (is achieved)||22||


 मैत्र्यादिषु बलानि॥२३॥
Maitryādiṣu balāni||23||

(Through Saṁyama) on friendship (maitryā) and so on (ādiṣu), (different kinds of) strengths (balāni) (are acquired)||23||


बलेषु हस्तिबलादीनि॥२४॥
Baleṣu hastibalādīni||24||

(Through Saṁyama) on (various) strengths (baleṣu), the strength (bala) of an elephant (hasti), etc. (ādīni) (may be attained)||24||


प्रवृत्त्यालोकन्यासात्सूक्ष्मव्यवहितविप्रकृष्टज्ञानम्॥२५॥
Pravṛttyālokanyāsātsūkṣmavyavahitaviprakṛṣṭajñānam||25||

By applying (nyāsāt) the light (āloka) of the supersensory perception (pravṛtti), knowledge (jñānam) of subtle (things) (sūkṣma), (objects which are) obstructed from view (vyavahita) (or) remote (viprakṛṣṭa), (is obtained)||25||


भुवनज्ञानं सूर्ये संयमात्॥२६॥
Bhuvanajñānaṁ sūrye saṁyamāt||26||

Through Saṁyama (saṁyamāt) on the Sun --i.e. the solar entrance in the body-- (sūrye), knowledge (jñānam) of the worlds (bhuvana) (is achieved)||26||


चन्द्रे ताराव्यूहज्ञानम्॥२७॥
Candre tārāvyūhajñānam||27||

(Through Saṁyama) on the moon --i.e. the lunar entrance in the body-- (candre), knowledge (jñānam) of the arrangements (vyūha) of stars (tārā) (is acquired)||27||


ध्रुवे तद्गतिज्ञानम्॥२८॥
Dhruve tadgatijñānam||28||

(Through Saṁyama) on the pole star (dhruve), knowledge (jñānam) of the movement (gati) of that --i.e. "of the stars"-- (tad) (is got or gotten)||28||


नाभिचक्रे कायव्यूहज्ञानम्॥२९॥
Nābhicakre kāyavyūhajñānam||29||

(Through Saṁyama) on the navel-cakra --i.e. "Maṇipūra"-- (nābhi-cakre), knowledge (jñānam) of the structure and disposition (vyūha) of the body (kāya) (is obtained)||29||


कण्ठकूपे क्षुत्पिपासानिवृत्तिः॥३०॥
Kaṇṭhakūpe kṣutpipāsānivṛttiḥ||30||

(Through Saṁyama) on the cavity (kūpe) of the throat (kaṇṭha), (there is) cessation (nivṛttiḥ) of hunger (kṣut) (and) thirst (pipāsā)||30||


कूर्मनाड्यां स्थैर्यम्॥३१॥
Kūrmanāḍyāṁ sthairyam||31||

(Through Saṁyama) on the bronchial tube (kūrmanāḍyām), calmness and firmness (sthairyam) (are achieved)||31||


मूर्धज्योतिषि सिद्धदर्शनम्॥३२॥
Mūrdhajyotiṣi siddhadarśanam||32||

(Through Saṁyama) on the coronal (mūrdha) light (jyotiṣi), (there is) perception or vision (darśanam) of the Siddha-s --i.e. not the Perfected Beings but a kind of demigods-- (siddha)||32||


प्रातिभाद्वा सर्वम्॥३३॥
Prātibhādvā sarvam||33||

Or (vā) through Prātibha --i.e. knowledge which comes to a Yogī before the attainment of discriminative knowledge-- (prātibhāt), everything (sarvam) (becomes known)||33||


 हृदये चित्तसंवित्॥३४॥
Hṛdaye cittasaṁvit||34||

(Through Saṁyama) on the heart (hṛdaye), knowledge (saṁvid) of mind (citta) (is attained)||34||


सत्त्वपुरुषयोरत्यन्तासङ्कीर्णयोः प्रत्ययाविशेषो भोगः परार्थत्वात्स्वार्थसंयमात्पुरुषज्ञानम्॥३५॥
Sattvapuruṣayoratyantāsaṅkīrṇayoḥ pratyayāviśeṣo bhogaḥ parārthatvātsvārthasaṁyamātpuruṣajñānam||35||

Experience of pleasure or pain (bhogaḥ) (based on) a conception (pratyaya) which does not distinguish (aviśeṣaḥ) (between such) completely (atyanta) different (asaṅkīrṇayoḥ) (entities as) Buddhisattva --i.e. Buddhi or intellect having abandoned all traces of Rajas and Tamas, that is, Buddhisattva is simply a sattvic Buddhi-- (sattva) (and) Puruṣa --i.e. the real Self or Knower-- (puruṣayoḥ), exists for another --i.e. for Puruṣa-- (parārthatvāt). Through Saṁyama (saṁyamāt) on (this) Puruṣa --i.e. one's own Self-- (svārtha), knowledge (jñānam) of Puruṣa (puruṣa) (is thus obtained)||35||


ततः प्रातिभश्रावणवेदनादर्शास्वादवार्ता जायन्ते॥३६॥
Tataḥ prātibhaśrāvaṇavedanādarśāsvādavārtā jāyante||36||

From that (Saṁyama on Puruṣa) (tatas), Prātibha --a kind of intuitive knowledge-- (prātibha), Śrāvaṇa --i.e. supernatural power of hearing-- (śrāvaṇa), Vedana --i.e. supernormal power of touch-- (vedana), the Ādarśa-s --i.e. the supernatural powers of seeing-- (ādarśa), Āsvāda --i.e. supernormal power of tasting-- (āsvāda) (and) Vārtā --i.e. supernatural power of smelling-- (vārtāḥ) arise (jāyante)||36||


ते समाधावुपसर्गा व्युत्थाने सिद्धयः॥३७॥
Te samādhāvupasargā vyutthāne siddhayaḥ||37||

Those (supernormal powers) (te) are obstacles or hindrances (upasargāḥ) in Samādhi (samādhau), (but) accomplishments (siddhayaḥ) in Vyutthāna --i.e. the ordinary state of consciousness in which the mind fluctuates-- (vyutthāne)||37||


बन्धकारणशैथिल्यात्प्रचारसंवेदनाच्च चित्तस्य परशरीरावेशः॥३८॥
Bandhakāraṇaśaithilyātpracārasaṁvedanācca cittasya paraśarīrāveśaḥ||38||

Through the weakening (śaithilyāt) of the cause (kāraṇa) of bondage (bandha) and (ca) complete knowledge/understanding (saṁvedanāt) of the roaming (pracāra) of mind (cittasya), (mental) penetration (āveśaḥ) into the body (śarīra) of another (para) (is possible then)||38||


उदानजयाज्जलपङ्ककण्टकादिष्वसङ्ग उत्क्रान्तिश्च॥३९॥
Udānajayājjalapaṅkakaṇṭakādiṣvasaṅga utkrāntiśca||39||

By conquering (jayāt) Udāna --i.e. one of the five main vital energies-- (udāna), (there is) movement without obstacle (asaṅgaḥ) in water (jala), mud (paṅka), thorns (kaṇṭaka), etc. (ādiṣu) and (ca) exit from the body (at will) at the time of death (utkrāntiḥ)||39||


समानजयाज्ज्वलनम्॥४०॥
Samānajayājjvalanam||40||

By conquering (jayāt) Samāna --i.e. one of the five main vital energies-- (samāna), effulgence (jvalanam) (is achieved)||40||


श्रोत्राकाशयोः सम्बन्धसंयमाद्दिव्यं श्रोत्रम्॥४१॥
Śrotrākāśayoḥ sambandhasaṁyamāddivyaṁ śrotram||41||

Through Saṁyama (saṁyamāt) on the relationship (sambandha) between the (ordinary) power of hearing --i.e. Śrotendriya-- (śrotra) (and) the space --i.e. ākāśa-- (ākāśayoḥ), divine (divyam) Power of Hearing (śrotram) (is developed)||41||


कायाकाशयोः सम्बन्धसंयमाल्लघुतूलसमापत्तेश्चाकाशगमनम्॥४२॥
Kāyākāśayoḥ sambandhasaṁyamāllaghutūlasamāpatteścākāśagamanam||42||

By means of Saṁyama (saṁyamāt) on the relationship (sambandha) between the physical body (kāya) (and) the space --i.e. ākāśa-- (ākāśayoḥ); and also (ca) by absorption --i.e. identification with-- (samāpatteḥ) into the light (laghu) cotton (tūla), movement (gamanam) through the space (ākāśa) (is obtained) --i.e. the Yogī can fly with the help of this kind of Saṁyama--||42||


वहिरकल्पिता वृत्तिर्महाविदेहा ततः प्रकाशावरणक्षयः॥४३॥
Vahirakalpitā vṛttirmahāvidehā tataḥ prakāśāvaraṇakṣayaḥ||43||

A unimagined (akalpitā) conception (vṛttiḥ) (which is held) outside (vahis), (is known as) the great (mahā) discarnate (videhā). From that --i.e. from Mahāvidehā or the great discarnate-- (tatas), (there is) removal (kṣayaḥ) of the veil (āvaraṇa) over the Light --i.e. over Buddhisattva-- (prakāśa)||43||


स्थूलस्वरूपसूक्ष्मान्वयार्थवत्त्वसंयमाद्भूतजयः॥४४॥
Sthūlasvarūpasūkṣmānvayārthavattvasaṁyamādbhūtajayaḥ||44||

Through Saṁyama (saṁyamāt) on the grossness (sthūla), essential nature (sva-rūpa), subtlety (sūkṣma), inherence --i.e. inherent quality-- (anvaya) (and) objectiveness (arthavattva) (of the Bhūta-s or Elements), victory (jayaḥ) over (those very) Bhūta-s or Elements (bhūta) (is secured)||44||


 ततोऽणिमादिप्रादुर्भावः कायसम्पत्तद्धर्मानभिघातश्च॥४५॥
Tato'ṇimādiprādurbhāvaḥ kāyasampattaddharmānabhighātaśca||45||

From that (aforesaid Saṁyama) (tatas), (there is) manifestation (prādurbhāvaḥ) of Aṇimā --i.e. the supernormal power of minimization-- (aṇimā), etc. (ādi), bodily (kāya) perfection (sampad) and (ca) non-obstruction (anabhighātaḥ) in respect of the characteristics (dharma) of that (very body) (tad)||45||


रूपलावण्यबलवज्रसंहननत्वानि कायसम्पत्॥४६॥
Rūpalāvaṇyabalavajrasaṁhananatvāni kāyasampat||46||

Bodily (kāya) perfection (sampad) (consists of) beauty (rūpa), charm (lāvaṇya), strength (bala) (and) adamantine (vajra) solidity --saṁhananatva-- (saṁhananatvāni)||46||


ग्रहणस्वरूपास्मितान्वयार्थवत्त्वसंयमादिन्द्रियजयः॥४७॥
Grahaṇasvarūpāsmitānvayārthavattvasaṁyamādindriyajayaḥ||47||

Through Saṁyama (saṁyamāt) on receptivity (grahaṇa), essential nature (sva-rūpa), I-sense (asmitā), inherence (anvaya) (and) objectiveness (arthavattva) (of the Indriya-s --i.e. powers of perception and action--), victory (jayaḥ) over (those very) Indriya-s (indriya) (is obtained)||47||


ततो मनोजवित्वं विकरणभावः प्रधानजयश्च॥४८॥
Tato manojavitvaṁ vikaraṇabhāvaḥ pradhānajayaśca||48||

From that (aforesaid Saṁyama) (tatas), swiftness (javitvam) (as) of mind (manas), a state (bhāvaḥ) in which the organs of sense act independently of the body (vikaraṇa), and (ca) victory (jayaḥ) over Pradhāna --i.e. Prakṛti, the original source of the material universe-- (pradhāna) (are secured)||48||


सत्त्वपुरुषान्यताख्यातिमात्रस्य सर्वभावाधिष्ठातृत्वं सर्वज्ञातृत्वं च॥४९॥
Sattvapuruṣānyatākhyātimātrasya sarvabhāvādhiṣṭhātṛtvaṁ sarvajñātṛtvaṁ ca||49||

To one established in (discriminative) knowledge (khyāti-mātrasya) of the difference (anyatā) between Buddhisattva --i.e. sattvic Buddhi full of discriminative knowledge-- (sattva) (and) Puruṣa (puruṣa) (comes) supremacy (adhiṣṭhātṛtvam) over all (sarva) beings (bhāva) and (ca) omniscience (sarvajñātṛtvam)||49||


तद्वैराग्यादपि दोषवीजक्षये कैवल्यम्॥५०॥
Tadvairāgyādapi doṣavījakṣaye kaivalyam||50||

By renunciation (vairāgyāt) even (api) of that --i.e. of Vivekakhyāti or discriminative knowledge-- (tad), when there is destruction (kṣaye) of the seeds (vīja) of evil (doṣa), Kaivalya or complete Emancipation (kaivalyam) (is experienced)||50||


स्थान्युपनिमन्त्रणे सङ्गस्मयाकरणं पुनरनिष्टप्रसङ्गात्॥५१॥
Sthānyupanimantraṇe saṅgasmayākaraṇaṁ punaraniṣṭaprasaṅgāt||51||

When invited (upanimantraṇe) by beings occupying a high position --i.e. celestial beings-- (sthāni), (that invitation) should not be accepted (saṅga... akaraṇam) nor should it cause (akaraṇam) conceit (smaya), since it involves the possibility (prasaṅgāt) of undesirable results (punar-aniṣṭa)||51||


क्षणतत्क्रमयोः संयमाद्विवेकजं ज्ञानम्॥५२॥
Kṣaṇatatkramayoḥ saṁyamādvivekajaṁ jñānam||52||

Through Saṁyama (saṁyamāt) on moment (kṣaṇa) (and) its (tad) sequence or succession --i.e. krama-- (kramayoḥ), a knowledge (jñānam) which arises (jam) from (that) discernment or discrimination (viveka) (is acquired)||52||


जातिलक्षणदेशैरन्यतानवच्छेदात्तुल्ययोस्ततः प्रतिपत्तिः॥५३॥
Jātilakṣaṇadeśairanyatānavacchedāttulyayostataḥ pratipattiḥ||53||

Through that (knowledge) (tatas), there is clear perception (of the difference) (pratipattiḥ) between two things looking alike (tulyayoḥ) since difference (anyatā) is indiscernible (anavacchedāt) by means of class or species (jāti), temporal character (lakṣaṇa) (and) position --i.e. deśa-- (deśaiḥ)||53||


In other words, even though two things look alike because the difference is indiscernible via class or species, temporal character and position, the Yogī can perceive the difference through that knowledge obtained by practicing Saṁyama on moment and its sequence.

तारकं सर्वविषयं सर्वथाविषयमक्रमं चेति विवेकजं ज्ञानम्॥५४॥
Tārakaṁ sarvaviṣayaṁ sarvathāviṣayamakramaṁ ceti vivekajaṁ jñānam||54||

Knowledge (jñānam) which arises (jam) from discernment or discrimination (viveka) is "Tāraka or intuitive knowledge (tārakam). (It is) comprehensive of all (sarva) things (viṣayam) appearing (viṣayam) at all times (sarvathā) and (ca) has no sequence (akramam... iti)"||54||

Note that "iti" stands for inverted commas.


सत्त्वपुरुषयोः शुद्धिसाम्ये कैवल्यमिति॥५५॥
Sattvapuruṣayoḥ śuddhisāmye kaivalyamiti||55||

When there is equality (sāmye) of purity (śuddhi) between Buddhisattva --i.e. sattvic Buddhi-- (sattva) (and) Puruṣa (puruṣayoḥ), "the state of complete Emancipation" (kaivalyam iti) (dawns)||55||


Note that "iti" now indicates the end of the section.

Here concludes the Third Section dealing with supernatural powers

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 Concluding remarks

A third document full of Yoga aphorisms in Sanskrit. Use it to keep learning Sanskrit language. Listen to the aphorisms over and over again, and then repeat them along with me. This practice will make sure that you are pronouncing Sanskrit in a proper way.

This is the third document of the series dedicated to the Pātañjalayogasūtra-s. Next document will deal with the Section IV known as "On Liberation". Best wishes to you and be happy.

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 Further Information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.