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 Learning Sanskrit - Combination (5)

Consonant Sandhi -Part 1-


 Introduction

Hi, this is Gabriel Pradīpaka. We will start learning Consonant Sandhi (Combination of a final consonant with an initial consonant or vowel) here. Remember now the three kinds of Sandhi:

1) Vowel Combinations (Vowel Sandhi)

2) Visarga Combinations (Visarga Sandhi)

3) Consonant Combinations (Consonant Sandhi)

We are studying Consonant Combinations (Consonant Sandhi). There are many rules, but I have chosen a few as the most important ones. However, before beginning with our study, remember the following table:

Gradations of Vowel Alternation
Type Vowels
WEAKENED GRADATION (simple vowels) a i-ī u-ū ṛ-ṝ
STRENGTHENED GRADATION (Guṇa) a e o ar al
PROTRACTED GRADATION (Vṛddhi) ā ai au ār āl

Besides, it is available now a page with plenty of examples for every rule which has been taught. Click here.

Let's begin our study right now.

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 1st Rule

A foremost rule:

1st Rule
No Sanskrit word can end in two or more consonants. The only exceptions are the endings "rk", "rṭ", "rt" and "rp". (Roots are not to be included in this rule).

This is a simple rule. Some examples: the original word "bharants" (carrying) must be changed to "bharan" due to the 1st rule of Consonant Sandhi. However, the word "ūrk" (strength, vigor) keeps the ending "rk" because it is included in the rule as a permitted exception. Very easy and very important at the same time. Remember: except the endings "rk", "rṭ", "rt" and "rp", no other ending containing two or more consonants is accepted.

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 2nd Rule

A general rule:

2nd Rule
(1st sub-rule) Any final "hard" consonant (except Sibilants) of a word placed at the end of a sentence remains unchanged.
(2nd sub-rule) Any final "hard" consonant (except Sibilants) placed before another "hard" consonant generally remains unchanged, except when you are forced to use some other rule of Sandhi.
(3rd sub-rule) Any final "hard" consonant (except Sibilants) placed before a "soft" letter (any soft consonant --except "nasals", but this exception is optionally overlooked sometimes; See 6th rule--, semivowel or vowel --except "Visarga"--) is changed to the respective "soft" consonant. (When a "nasal" consonant is following, you will have to use the 6th Rule of Consonant Sandhi).

The following chart shows the rule in a simple way:

Table 1
First sub-rule
Any final hard consonant (except Sibilants) belonging to a word situated at the end of a sentence, does not undergo any changes
Second sub-rule
final hard consonant (except Sibilants) + another hard consonant = no changes (generally)
+ = some changes (if you need to use some other rule of Sandhi)
Third sub-rule
final hard consonant (except Sibilants) + a soft letter (any soft consonant --except "nasals"--, semivowel or vowel --except "Visarga"--) = that final hard consonant is to be transformed into the corresponding soft consonant

No need to give examples of the first sub-rule because it is obvious.

2nd sub-rule: final hard consonant (except Sibilants) + another hard consonant = (1) no changes (generally), or (2) some changes if you are bound to use some other rule of Sandhi
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
सत् (sat) + सङ्घः (saṅghaḥ) = सत्सङ्घः (satsaṅghaḥ) तत् (tat) + शक्तिः (śaktiḥ) = तच्छक्तिः (tacchaktiḥ)
Good (sat) company (saṅghaḥ) That (tat) Śakti or Power (śaktiḥ)
No changes here: "t" remains unchanged before "s" (the two are hard consonants, of course) Some changes here, because you were forced to use the 9th Rule of Consonant Sandhi: t + ś = cch
3rd sub-rule: final hard consonant (except Sibilants) + a soft letter (soft consonants --except "nasals"--, semivowels and vowels --except "Visarga"--) = the former is changed to the respective soft consonant
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
श्रीमत् (śrīmat) + भगवद्गीता (bhagavadgītā) = श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता (śrīmadbhagavadgītā) वनात् (vanāt) + आगच्छामि (āgacchāmi) = वनादागच्छामि (vanāgacchāmi)
The venerable and beautiful (śrīmat) Bhagavadgītā (bhagavadgītā) I come (āgacchāmi) from the woods (vanāt)
"t" is turned into "d" before "bh" (a "soft" consonant) "t" is turned into "d" before "ā" (a vowel). All vowels are "soft" letters except Visarga (ḥ)

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 3rd Rule

A crucial rule:

3rd Rule
Either at the end of the final word of a sentence or at the end of a single word which is ready to be inserted in a sentence, there can be only (1) Vowels (except ṛ, ṝ and ḷ), (2) Unaspirate hard Consonants (except "c"), (3) Nasals (except "ñ"), (4) Visarga (ḥ) and (5) The letter "l", which is a semivowel. Any other letter being situated in the aforesaid position, must be replaced according to the following sub-rules:
(1st sub-rule) The final unaspirate and aspirate soft letters (except the palatals "j" and "jh") are transformed into the corresponding "unaspirate" hard letter.
(2nd sub-rule) The final Palatals (except "ñ") are frequently changed to "k". However, sometimes "j" is also transformed into "ṭ". The final "ñ" is to be changed to "ṅ".
(3rd sub-rule) The final "ś" is changed to either "k" or "ṭ". In turn, the final "ṣ" and "h" are generally transformed into "ṭ", and rarely into "k".

This is a vital rule indeed. You need to use it in order to change the final consonants properly. It is to be used at the end of a final word of a sentence or at the end of a single word which is ready to be put into a sentence. That is, (1) The final letter in a sentence must be only one of those formally stated by this rule, (2) Before inserting a word in a sentence, you must prepare it by following this rule. You cannot often merely bring it directly from the dictionary to the sentence. Once the word has been suitably prepared and placed in the sentence, maybe other Sandhi rules will make further changes to it. For example, you take the word "tad" from the dictionary and change it to "tat" according to the present rule (1st sub-rule). Afterward, you put it in the sentence. However, if "tat" comes before a soft letter you will have to use the 2nd rule of Consonant Sandhi in order to transform "tat" back into "tad". (e.g. tat + dānam = taddānam --that gift--). It is somewhat messy, but funny in the end.

A simple table now in which I summarize the entire rule:

Table 2
Rule
The only letters allowed to stand at a final position are: (1) a, ā, i, ī, u, ū, e, ai, o, au and ṁ (Anusvāra); (2) k, ṭ, t and p; (3) ṅ, ṇ, n and m; (4) ḥ (Visarga); (5) l (a semivowel)
Any other final letter must be replaced according to the following and simple sub-rules:
First sub-rule
"g" and "gh"
are to be transformed into
"k"
"ḍ" and "ḍh" "ṭ"
"d" and "dh" "t"
"b" and "bh" "p"
Second sub-rule
"c", "ch", "j" and "jh" are generally turned into "k"
"j" is sometimes also transformed into "ṭ"
"ñ" is to be changed to "ṅ"
Third sub-rule
"ś" is to be transformed into "k" or "ṭ"
"ṣ" and "h" are generally turned into "ṭ"
"ṣ" and "h" are rarely turned into "k"

Examples now (of course, I am not going to give one example for every case):

1st sub-rule: "d" is transformed into "t"
I have marked with green color the corresponding substitution
तद् (tad) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned into तत् (tát) उपनिषद् (upaniṣad) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned into उपनिषत् (upaniṣat)
That (tat) Secret esoteric doctrine (upaniṣat)
1st sub-rule: "dh" is transformed into "t"
I have marked with green color the corresponding substitution
समिध् (samidh) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned into समित् (samit) क्षुध् (kṣudh) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned into क्षुत् (kṣut)
Firewood (samit) Hunger (kṣut)
1st sub-rule: "bh" is transformed into "p"
I have marked with green color the corresponding substitution
अनुष्टुभ् (anuṣṭúbh) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned into अनुष्टुप् (anuṣṭúp) त्रिष्टुभ् (triṣṭúbh) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned into त्रिष्टुप् (triṣṭúp)
This is the name of a well-known meter The name of another well-known meter
2nd sub-rule: "c" is transformed into "k"
I have marked with green color the corresponding substitution
वाच् (vāc) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned into वाक् (vāk) शुच् (śuc) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned into शुक् (śuk)
Speech (vāk) Shining (śuk)
2nd sub-rule: "j" is generally transformed into "k", but sometimes into "ṭ"
I have marked with green color the corresponding substitution
स्रज् (sraj) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned into स्रक् (srak) राज् (rāj) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned into राट् (rā)
A garland (srak) A king (rāṭ)
3rd sub-rule: "ś" is transformed either into "k" or "ṭ"
I have marked with green color the corresponding substitution
दिश् (diś) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned into दिक् (dik) नश् (naś) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned either into नक् (nak) or नट् (na)
Direction (dik) Perishing (nak or naṭ)
3rd sub-rule: both "s" and "h" are generally transformed into "ṭ" and rarely into "k"
I have marked with green color the corresponding substitution
मधुलिह् (madhulih) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned into मधुलिट् (madhuli) दधृष् (dadhṛṣ) --original word which is found in the dictionary-- is to be turned either into दधृक् (dadhṛk)
A bee (madhuliṭ) A bold man (dadhṛk)

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 4th Rule

A somewhat complicated but very important rule:

4th Rule
(1st sub-rule) If a final "s" (dental) comes in contact with "ś" or any other Palatal (c, ch, j, jh or ñ), "ś" is substituted for "s" (See 1st Rule of Visarga Sandhi). In turn, regarding the combination between some of the remaining Dentals and Palatals, it may be stated the following: (a) "t" changes to "c" or "j" before "c", "ch", "j" or "jh" respectively; (b) "n" changes to "ñ" before "c", "ch", "j", or "jh". (Exceptions: "t" or "n" coming after "ś" are not affected by this rule, that is, they are not transformed into the respective palatals).
(2nd sub-rule) If a final "s" (dental) comes in contact with "ṣ" or any other Cerebral (ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh or ṇ), "ṣ" is substituted for "s" (See 1st and 3rd Rules of Visarga Sandhi too). In turn, regarding the combination between some of the remaining Dentals and Cerebrals, it may be stated the following: (a) "t" changes to "ṭ" before "ṭ"; (b) "n" changes to "ṇ" before any cerebral.

In the case of "s" before "ś" or "ṣ", you also might keep a Visarga. Thus, this part of the rule is a kind of alternative form of the first rule of Visarga Sandhi. That is: final "s" + "ś" = "śś" and final "s" + "ṣ" = "ṣṣ" (you join the two words), but you may optionally choose final "s" + "ś" = "ḥ" + "ś" and final "s" + "ṣ" = "ḥ" + "ṣ" (the two words remain separate from each other) according to the 1st Rule of Visarga Sandhi. Likewise, the combination of "s" with the Palatals and Cerebrals (c, ch, j, jh, ñ, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh and ṇ) is an alternative form of the third rule of Visarga Sandhi [See Combination (4)]You will understand all by means of simple examples, but firstly look at this table:

Table 3
First sub-rule
final "s"
+
"ś" or any other Palatal (c, ch, j, jh or ñ)
=
"s" is transformed into "ś"
"t" + "c", "ch", "j" or "jh" = "cc", "cch", "jj" or "jjh" respectively
"n" + "c", "ch", "j" or "jh" = "ñc", "ñch", "ñj" or "ñjh" respectively
Second sub-rule
final "s" + "ṣ" or any other Cerebral (ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh or ṇ) = "s" is transformed into "ṣ"
"t" + "ṭ" = "ṭṭ"
"n" + any cerebral = "ṇ" + any cerebral

A few examples now (of course, I am not going to give one example for every possible combination):

1st sub-rule: final "s" + "ś" or any other Palatal (c, ch, j, jh or ñ) = "śś" (or, optionally, "ḥ + ś" according to the 1st Rule of Visarga Sandhi --this optional way is used most frequently--) or "śc", "śch", "śj", "śjh", "śñ" respectively
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
नमस् (namas) + शिवाय (śivāya) = नमश्शिवाय (namaśśivāya) नमस् (namas) + शिवाय (śivāya) = नमः शिवाय (namaḥ śivāya)
Salutation (namas) to Śiva (śivāya) Salutation (namas) to Śiva (śivāya)
The following examples were also given by me when I taught you the 3rd Rule of Visarga Sandhi. The only difference you will find now is "s" being substituted for Visarga
शिवस् (śivas) + (ca) = शिवश्च (śivaśca) शिवस् (śivas) + छायः (chāyaḥ) = शिवश्छायः (śivaśchāyaḥ)
Śiva (śivas) too (ca) Śiva (śivas) grants shade (chāyaḥ)
1st sub-rule a): "t" + "c" = "cc"
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
सत् (sat) + चित् (cít) = सच्चित् (saccit) तत् (tat) + (ca) = तच्च (tacca)
Existence (sat) and Consciousness (cít) And (ca) that (tat)
1st sub-rule b): "n" + "c", "ch", "j" or "jh" = "ñc", "ñch", "ñj" or "ñjh" respectively
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
तान् (tān) + जनान् (janān) = ताञ्जनान् (tāñjanān) मन्त्रान् (mantrān) + जपेत् (japet) = मन्त्राञ्जपेत् (mantrāñjapet)
To those (tān) people (janān) One should whisper (japet) the Mantra-s (mantrān)
2nd sub-rule: final "s" + "ṣ" or any other Cerebral (ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh or ṇ) = "ṣṣ" (or, optionally, "ḥ + ṣ" according to the 1st Rule of Visarga Sandhi --this optional way is used most frequently--) or "ṣṭ", "ṣṭh", "ṣḍ", "ṣḍh", "ṣṇ" respectively
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
अश्वास् (aśvās) + षट् (ṣaṭ) = अश्वाष्षट् (aśvāṣṣaṭ) अश्वास् (aśvās) + षट् (ṣaṭ) = अश्वाः षट् (aśvāḥ ṣaṭ)
Six (ṣaṭ) horses (aśvās) Six (ṣaṭ) horses (aśvās)
The following examples were also given by me when I taught you the 3rd Rule of Visarga Sandhi. The only difference you will find now is "s" being substituted for Visarga
सुन्दरस् (sundaras) + टङ्कः (ṭaṅkaḥ) = सुन्दरष्टङ्कः (sundaraṣṭaṅkaḥ) वरस् (varas) + ठक्कुराणाम् (ṭhakkurāṇām) = वरष्ठक्कुराणाम् (varaṣṭhakkurāṇām)
A beautiful (sundaras) hatchet (ṭaṅkaḥ) The most eminent one (varas) among the deities (ṭhakkurāṇām)
2nd sub-rule a): "t" + "ṭ" = "ṭṭ"
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
एतत् (etat) + टीका (ṭīkā) = एतट्टीका (etaṭṭīkā) तत् (tat) + टङ्कः (ṭaṅkaḥ) = तट्टङ्कः (taṭṭaṅkaḥ)
This (etat) commentary (ṭīkā) (specially a commentary on other commentary) That (tat) hatchet (ṭaṅkaḥ)
2nd sub-rule b): "n" + any cerebral= "ṇ" + any cerebral
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
एतान् (etān) + टङ्कान् (ṭaṅkān) = एताण्टङ्कान् (etāṇṭaṅkān) योगिन् (yogin) + ढुण्ढे(ḍhuṇḍhe) = योगिण्ढुण्ढे (yogiṇḍhuṇḍhe)
To these (etān) hatchets (ṭaṅkān) Oh yogī (yogin) Gaṇeśa (ḍhuṇḍhe)!

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 5th Rule

A general rule:

5th Rule
Any consonant --except Nasals, Semivowels and Sibilants-- is changed to the first of its class, when followed by a hard consonant (this is "mainly" a kind of complement to the 2nd sub-rule of the second rule of Consonant Sandhi; go to the 4th rule for more specific information about changes in Sibilants).

In short, this is general rule to be applied in conjunction with other rules of Consonant Sandhi. Always remember this and use the present rule only when it does not contradict the rest of rules.

Table 4
any consonant (except Nasals, Semivowels and Sibilants)
+
a hard consonant
=
the first consonant of its respective class + a hard consonant (this is mainly a complement to the 2nd sub-rule of the second rule of Consonant Sandhi)

Some examples now:

any consonant (except Nasals, Semivowels and Sibilants) + a hard consonant = the first consonant of its respective class + a hard consonant (this is mainly a complement to the 2nd sub-rule of the second rule of Consonant Sandhi)
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
ईशोपनिषद् (īśopaniṣad) + कृत् (kṛt) = ईशोपनिषत्कृत् (īśopaniṣatkṛt) तद् (tad) + कर्म (karma) = तत्कर्म (tatkarma)
The author (kṛt) of Īśopanisad (īśopaniṣad) That (tad) action (karma)

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 6th Rule

An important rule indeed:

6th Rule
If a final consonant, except "r" or "h", be followed by a Nasal, the Nasal of its class is optionally substituted for it.

This vital rule is a complement to the 3rd sub-rule of the second rule of Consonant Sandhi.

Table 5
a final consonant (except "r" or "h")
+
a Nasal
=
the corresponding Nasal of its class + a Nasal (although this is optional, it is generally used)

It is a very simple rule indeed:

a final consonant (except "r" or "h") + a Nasal = the corresponding Nasal of its class + a Nasal
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
I choose to use this optional rule I choose not to use this optional rule
एतद् (etad) + मन्त्रः (mantraḥ) = एतन्मन्त्रः (etanmantraḥ) (this substitution is commonly seen despite it is optional) एतद् (etad) + मन्त्रः (mantraḥ) = एतद्मन्त्रः (etadmantraḥ) (here, you choose to keep the original "d" in "etad"; this is valid for all "soft" consonants except "r" or "h"; however, this is not commonly seen)
This (etad) Mantra (mantraḥ) This (etad) Mantra (mantraḥ)
षट् (saṭ) + मन्त्राः (mantrāḥ) = षण्मन्त्राः (ṣaṇmantrāḥ) (this substitution is commonly seen despite it is optional) षट् (saṭ) + मन्त्राः (mantrāḥ) = षड्मन्त्राः (ṣaḍmantrāḥ) (here, I am using "optionally" the 3rd sub-rule of the second rule of Consonant Sandhi; but this is not commonly seen)
Six (ṣaṭ) Mantra-s (mantrāḥ) Six (ṣaṭ) Mantra-s (mantrāḥ)
वाक् (vāk) + मूलम् (mūlam) = वाङ्मूलम् (vāṅmūlam) (this substitution is commonly seen despite it is optional) वाक् (vāk) + मूलम् (mūlam) = वाग्मूलम् (vāgmūlam) (here, I am using "optionally" the 3rd sub-rule of the second rule of Consonant Sandhi; but this is not commonly seen)
Having its root or origin (mūlam) in speech (vāk) Having its root or origin (mūlam) in speech (vāk)

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 7th Rule

A useful rule, no doubt:

7th Rule
If a word ending in a Cerebral letter be followed by "s" or a letter of the Dental class (t, th, d, dh and n), both "s" and the aforesaid Dentals (except "n" of "nāma" --name--, "navati" --ninety-- and "nagarī" --city--) remain unaffected.

This is an important rule to be kept in mind.

Table 6
a final Cerebral letter
+
s, t, th, d, dh or n (except "n" of "nāma", "navati" and "nagarī")
=
the latter remain unaffected

A few examples now, along with the exceptions:

a final Cerebral letter + s, t, th, d, dh or n (except "n" of "nāma", "navati" and "nagarī") = the latter remain unaffected
I have marked with green color the resulting combination, when any
षट् (ṣaṭ) + सिद्धयः (siddhayaḥ) = षट्सिद्धयः (ṣaṭsiddhayaḥ) (as you see, "s" remains unaffected) षट् (ṣaṭ) + नवति (navati) = षण्णवति (ṣaṇṇavati) (the rule is not followed here because "navati" is one of the exceptions; in this case ṭ + n = ṇṇ --a very special form of combination indeed--)
Six (ṣaṭ) perfections (siddhayaḥ) Ninety-six (ṣaṇṇavati)
षट् (ṣaṭ) + तन्त्राणि (tantrāṇi) = षट्तन्त्राणि (ṣaṭtantrāṇi) (as you see, "t" remains unaffected) षट् (ṣaṭ) + नगर्यः (nagaryaḥ) = षण्णगर्यः (ṣaṇṇagaryaḥ) (the rule is not followed here because "nagarī" is one of the exceptions; in this case ṭ + n = ṇṇ --a very special form of combination indeed--)
Six (ṣaṭ) Tantra-s (tantrāṇi) Six (ṣaṭ) cities (nagaryaḥ)
षट् (ṣaṭ) + धर्माः (dharmāḥ) = षड्धर्माः (ṣaḍdharmāḥ) (as you see, "dh" remains unaffected, but the final "ṭ" had to be changed to "ḍ" according to the 3rd sub-rule of the second rule of Consonant Sandhi) षट् (ṣaṭ) + नामानि (nāmāni) = षण्णामानि (ṣaṇṇāmāni) (the rule is not followed here because "nāma" is one of the exceptions; in this case ṭ + n = ṇṇ --a very special form of combination indeed--)
Six (ṣaṭ) religions or duties (dharmāḥ) Six (ṣaṭ) names (nāmāni)

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 8th Rule

This rule is really important:

8th Rule
When "h" comes after any of the first four letters of a class (Guttural, Palatal, Cerebral, Dental or Labial), is optionally transformed into the soft aspirate consonant of that class. That is, "h" may be optionally changed to the fourth letter of the respective class.

Although this rule is optional, it is often used.

Table 7
k, kh, g, gh, c, ch, j, jh, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, t, th, d, dh, p, ph, b or bh
+
h
=
"k, kh, g, gh" + "gh" or "c, ch, j, jh" + "jh" or "ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh" + "ḍh" or "t, th, d, dh" + "dh" or "p, ph, b, bh" + "bh" (this change is optional)

Examples now:

any of the first four letters of a class + h = h is optionally changed to the fourth letter (soft aspirate) of the respective class
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
I choose not to use this optional rule I choose to use this optional rule
क्षुत् (kṣut) + हरणः (haraṇaḥ) = क्षुद्‍हरणः (kṣud-haraṇaḥ) [I simply used the 3rd sub-rule of the second rule of Consonant Sandhi --"t" was turned into "d"--; the combination "d-h" may be mistaken for the soft aspirate "dh" in the transliteration (but not in the original Devanāgarī, of course), hence I inserted a hyphen into the junction (d-h); this is a disadvantage though] क्षुत् (kṣut) + हरणः (haraṇaḥ) = क्षद्धरणः (kṣuddharaṇaḥ) (I first used the 3rd sub-rule of the second rule of Consonant Sandhi --"t" was turned into "d"--, and after that I applied the present rule by changing "h" to "dh"; you cannot be confused in the transliteration now)
A destroyer (haraṇaḥ) of hunger (kṣut) A destroyer (haraṇaḥ) of hunger (kṣut)
वाक् (vāk) + हेतुः (hetuḥ) = वाग्‍हेतुः (vāg-hetuḥ) [I simply used the 3rd sub-rule of the second rule of Consonant Sandhi --"k" was turned into "g"--; the combination "g-h" may be mistaken for the soft aspirate "gh" in the transliteration (but not in the original Devanāgarī, of course), hence I inserted a hyphen into the junction (g-h); this is a disadvantage though] वाक् (vāk) + हेतुः (hetuḥ) = वाग्घेतुः (vāgghetuḥ) (I first used the 3rd sub-rule of the second rule of Consonant Sandhi --"k" was turned into "g"--, and after that I applied the present rule by changing "h" to "gh"; you cannot be confused in the transliteration now)
The cause (hetuḥ) of speech (vāk) The cause (hetuḥ) of speech (vāk)

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 9th Rule

A crucial rule:

9th Rule
When "ś" is both preceded by a word ending in any of the first four letters of a class and followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h", is optionally transformed into "ch".

Note that most optional rules are actually used very often. Besides, this rule is generally used together with other rules of Sandhi. You will see this in the examples.

Table 8
k, kh, g, gh, c, ch, j, jh, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, t, th, d, dh, p, ph, b or bh
+
"ś" followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h"
=
"ś" is optionally transformed into "ch"

Examples now:

any of the first four letters of a class + "ś" followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h" = "ś" is optionally changed to "ch"
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
I choose not to use this optional rule I choose to use this optional rule
क्षुत् (kṣut) + शरणम् (śaraṇam) = क्षुत्शरणम् (kṣuaraṇam) (According to the 2nd sub-rule of the second rule of Consonant Sandhi, "t" is to be remain unchanged before "ś") क्षुत् (kṣut) + शरणम् (śaraṇam) = क्षुत्छरणम् (kṣutcharaṇam) (I simply used the present rule and substituted "ch" for "ś"; however, I will have to use now the 1st sub-rule (a) of the fourth rule of Consonant Sandhi, and thus change "t" into "c") = क्षुच्छरणम् (kṣuccharaṇam) (In sum, I could state directly that "t + ś = cch", optionally, of course. This is only true if "ś" is followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h"; careful!)
A place of refuge (śaraṇam) for hunger (kṣut) A place of refuge (śaraṇam) for hunger (kṣut)
तद् (tad) + शक्तिः (śaktiḥ) = तत्शक्तिः (taaktiḥ) (According to the fifth rule of Consonant Sandhi, "d" is to be changed to "t" before a hard letter like "ś"; remember that all Sibilants ar hard consonants) तद् (tad) + शक्तिः (śaktiḥ) = तत्शक्तिः (taaktiḥ) (Firstly, according to the fifth rule of Consonant Sandhi, "d" is to be changed to "t" before a hard letter like "ś"; and secondly, I change "ś" into "ch") = तत्छक्तिः (tatchaktiḥ) (Thirdly, according to the 1st sub-rule (a) of the fourth rule of Consonant Sandhi, I will have to change "t" into "c") = तच्छक्तिः (tacchaktiḥ) (In sum, I could state directly that "t + ś = cch", optionally, of course. This is only true if "ś" is followed by a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h"; careful!)
That (tad) power (śaktiḥ) That (tad) power (śaktiḥ)
सम्यक् (samyak) + श्रद्धानम् (śraddhānam) = सम्यक्श्रद्धानम् (samyaraddhānam) (No changes at all) सम्यक् (samyak) + श्रद्धानम् (śraddhānam) = सम्यक्छ्रद्धानम् (samyakchraddhānam) (I replaced "ch" for "ś"; this is optional, of course)
Right (samyak) belief (śraddhānam) Right (samyak) belief (śraddhānam)
Exception
वाक् (vāk) + श्चोतति (ścotati) = वाक्श्चोतति (vācotati) (I cannot optionally transform "ś" into "ch" because the former is followed by "c", which is not a Vowel, a Semivowel, a Nasal or "h" as the current rule demands; careful!)
Speech (vāk) falters (scotati)

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 10th Rule

A rule that is used very, very often indeed:

10th Rule
The letter "m" situated at the end of a word is to be always transformed into Anusvāra when followed by a Consonant.

This rule is really simple. Since it is used all the time, bear it always in mind:

Table 9
"m" at the end of a word
+
a Consonant
=
"m" is changed to "ṁ"

Examples now:

"m" at the end of a word + a Consonant = "m" is always changed to "ṁ"
I have marked with green color the resulting combination
शिवम् (śivam) + नमः (namaḥ) = शिवं नमः (śivaṁ námaḥ) (I simply substituted "ṁ" for "m") पुष्पम् (puṣpam) + दत्तम् (dattám) = पुष्पं दत्तम् (puṣpaṁ dattám) (I simply substituted "ṁ" for "m")
Salutation (namaḥ) to Śiva (śivam) A flower (puṣpam) which is given (dattám)
तम् (tam) + देवम् (devam) = तं देवम् (taṁ devam) (I simply substituted "ṁ" for "m") सुखम् (sukham) + गृहम् (gṛham) = सुखं गृहम् (sukhaṁ gṛham) (I simply substituted "ṁ" for "m")
To that (tam) god (devam) A confortable (sukham) house (gṛham)

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 Concluding remarks

This first document about Consonant Sandhi is finished now. Study every rule over and over again until it is fixed in your mind. You will need them in the future, no doubt. No advance in Sanskrit learning is possible if you do not know Sandhi. Sandhi is vital, is the blood of our study of Sanskrit language.

The remaining rules of Consonant Sandhi will be studied in detail on the next two documents. See you!

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 Further information

Gabriel Pradīpaka

This document was conceived by Gabriel Pradīpaka, one of the two founders of this site, and spiritual guru conversant with Sanskrit language and Trika philosophy.

For further information about Sanskrit, Yoga and Indian Philosophy; or if you simply want to comment, ask a question or correct a mistake, feel free to contact us: This is our e-mail address.